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Which are your Top 5 favourite coins out of the Top 100? An analysis.

I am putting together my investment portfolio for 2018 and made a complete summary of the current Top 100. Interestingly, I noticed that all coins can be categorized into 12 markets. Which markets do you think will play the biggest role in the coming year?
Here is a complete overview of all coins in an excel sheet including name, market, TPS, risk profile, time since launch (negative numbers mean that they are launching that many months in the future) and market cap. You can also sort by all of these fields of course. Coins written in bold are the strongest contenders within their market either due to having the best technology or having a small market cap and still excellent technology and potential. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1s8PHcNvvjuy848q18py_CGcu8elRGQAUIf86EYh4QZo/edit#gid=0
The 12 markets are
  1. Currency 13 coins
  2. Platform 25 coins
  3. Ecosystem 9 coins
  4. Privacy 10 coins
  5. Currency Exchange Tool 8 coins
  6. Gaming & Gambling 5 coins
  7. Misc 15 coins
  8. Social Network 4 coins
  9. Fee Token 3 coins
  10. Decentralized Data Storage 4 coins
  11. Cloud Computing 3 coins
  12. Stable Coin 2 coins
Before we look at the individual markets, we need to take a look of the overall market and its biggest issue scalability first:
Cryptocurrencies aim to be a decentralized currency that can be used worldwide. Its goal is to replace dollar, Euro, Yen, all FIAT currencies worldwide. The coin that will achieve that will be worth several trillion dollars.
Bitcoin can only process 7 transactions per second (TPS). In order to replace all FIAT, it would need to perform at at least VISA levels, which usually processes around 3,000 TPS, up to 25,000 TPS during peak times and a maximum of 64,000 TPS. That means that this cryptocurrency would need to be able to perform at least several thousand TPS. However, a ground breaking technology should not look at current technology to set a goal for its use, i.e. estimating the number of emails sent in 1990 based on the number of faxes sent wasn’t a good estimate.
For that reason, 10,000 TPS is the absolute baseline for a cryptocurrency that wants to replace FIAT. This brings me to IOTA, which wants to connect all 80 billion IoT devices that are expected to exist by 2025, which constantly communicate with each other, creating 80 billion or more transactions per second. This is the benchmark that cryptocurrencies should be aiming for. Currently, 8 billion devices are connected to the Internet.
With its Lightning network recently launched, Bitcoin is realistically looking at 50,000 possible soon. Other notable cryptocurrencies besides IOTA and Bitcoin are Nano with 7,000 TPS already tested, Dash with several billion TPS possible with Masternodes, Neo, LISK and RHOC with 100,000 TPS by 2020, Ripple with 50,000 TPS, Ethereum with 10,000 with Sharding.
However, it needs to be said that scalability usually goes at the cost of decentralization and security. So, it needs to be seen, which of these technologies can prove itself resilient and performant.
Without further ado, here are the coins of the first market

Market 1 - Currency:

  1. Bitcoin: 1st generation blockchain with currently bad scalability currently, though the implementation of the Lightning Network looks promising and could alleviate most scalability concerns, scalability and high energy use.
  2. Ripple: Centralized currency that might become very successful due to tight involvement with banks and cross-border payments for financial institutions; banks and companies like Western Union and Moneygram (who they are currently working with) as customers customers. However, it seems they are aiming for more decentralization now.https://ripple.com/dev-blog/decentralization-strategy-update/. Has high TPS due to Proof of Correctness algorithm.
  3. Bitcoin Cash: Bitcoin fork with the difference of having an 8 times bigger block size, making it 8 times more scalable than Bitcoin currently. Further block size increases are planned. Only significant difference is bigger block size while big blocks lead to further problems that don't seem to do well beyond a few thousand TPS. Opponents to a block size argue that increasing the block size limit is unimaginative, offers only temporary relief, and damages decentralization by increasing costs of participation. In order to preserve decentralization, system requirements to participate should be kept low. To understand this, consider an extreme example: very big blocks (1GB+) would require data center level resources to validate the blockchain. This would preclude all but the wealthiest individuals from participating.Community seems more open than Bitcoin's though.
  4. Litecoin : Little brother of Bitcoin. Bitcoin fork with different mining algorithm but not much else.Copies everything that Bitcoin does pretty much. Lack of real innovation.
  5. Dash: Dash (Digital Cash) is a fork of Bitcoin and focuses on user ease. It has very fast transactions within seconds, low fees and uses Proof of Service from Masternodes for consensus. They are currently building a system called Evolution which will allow users to send money using usernames and merchants will find it easy to integrate Dash using the API. You could say Dash is trying to be a PayPal of cryptocurrencies. Currently, cryptocurrencies must choose between decentralization, speed, scalability and can pick only 2. With Masternodes, Dash picked speed and scalability at some cost of decentralization, since with Masternodes the voting power is shifted towards Masternodes, which are run by Dash users who own the most Dash.
  6. IOTA: 3rd generation blockchain called Tangle, which has a high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. IOTA aims to be the connective layer between all 80 billion IOT devices that are expected to be connected to the Internet in 2025, possibly creating 80 billion transactions per second or 800 billion TPS, who knows. However, it needs to be seen if the Tangle can keep up with this scalability and iron out its security issues that have not yet been completely resolved.
  7. Nano: 3rd generation blockchain called Block Lattice with high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. Unlike IOTA, Nano only wants to be a payment processor and nothing else, for now at least. With Nano, every user has their own blockchain and has to perform a small amount of computing for each transaction, which makes Nano perform at 300 TPS with no problems and 7,000 TPS have also been tested successfully. Very promising 3rd gen technology and strong focus on only being the fastest currency without trying to be everything.
  8. Decred: As mining operations have grown, Bitcoin’s decision-making process has become more centralized, with the largest mining companies holding large amounts of power over the Bitcoin improvement process. Decred focuses heavily on decentralization with their PoW Pos hybrid governance system to become what Bitcoin was set out to be. They will soon implement the Lightning Network to scale up. While there do not seem to be more differences to Bitcoin besides the novel hybrid consensus algorithm, which Ethereum, Aeternity and Bitcoin Atom are also implementing, the welcoming and positive Decred community and professoinal team add another level of potential to the coin.
  9. Aeternity: We’ve seen recently, that it’s difficult to scale the execution of smart contracts on the blockchain. Crypto Kitties is a great example. Something as simple as creating and trading unique assets on Ethereum bogged the network down when transaction volume soared. Ethereum and Zilliqa address this problem with Sharding. Aeternity focuses on increasing the scalability of smart contracts and dapps by moving smart contracts off-chain. Instead of running on the blockchain, smart contracts on Aeternity run in private state channels between the parties involved in the contracts. State channels are lines of communication between parties in a smart contract. They don’t touch the blockchain unless they need to for adjudication or transfer of value. Because they’re off-chain, state channel contracts can operate much more efficiently. They don’t need to pay the network for every time they compute and can also operate with greater privacy. An important aspect of smart contract and dapp development is access to outside data sources. This could mean checking the weather in London, score of a football game, or price of gold. Oracles provide access to data hosted outside the blockchain. In many blockchain projects, oracles represent a security risk and potential point of failure, since they tend to be singular, centralized data streams. Aeternity proposes decentralizing oracles with their oracle machine. Doing so would make outside data immutable and unchangeable once it reaches Aeternity’s blockchain. Of course, the data source could still be hacked, so Aeternity implements a prediction market where users can bet on the accuracy and honesty of incoming data from various oracles.It also uses prediction markets for various voting and verification purposes within the platform. Aeternity’s network runs on on a hybrid of proof of work and proof of stake. Founded by a long-time crypto-enthusiast and early colleague of Vitalik Buterin, Yanislav Malahov. Promising concept though not product yet
  10. Bitcoin Atom: Atomic Swaps and hybrid consenus. This looks like the only Bitcoin clone that actually is looking to innovate next to Bitcoin Cash.
  11. Dogecoin: Litecoin fork, fantastic community, though lagging behind a bit in technology.
  12. Bitcoin Gold: A bit better security than bitcoin through ASIC resistant algorithm, but that's it. Not that interesting.
  13. Digibyte: Digibyte's PoS blockchain is spread over a 100,000+ servers, phones, computers, and nodes across the globe, aiming for the ultimate level of decentralization. DigiByte rebalances the load between the five mining algorithms by adjusting the difficulty of each so one algorithm doesn’t become dominant. The algorithm's asymmetric difficulty has gained notoriety and been deployed in many other blockchains.DigiByte’s adoption over the past four years has been slow. It’s still a relatively obscure currency compared its competitors. The DigiByte website offers a lot of great marketing copy and buzzwords. However, there’s not much technical information about what they have planned for the future. You could say Digibyte is like Bitcoin, but with shorter blocktimes and a multi-algorithm. However, that's not really a difference big enough to truly set themselves apart from Bitcoin, since these technologies could be implemented by any blockchain without much difficulty. Their decentralization is probably their strongest asset, however, this also change quickly if the currency takes off and big miners decide to go into Digibyte.
  14. Bitcoin Diamond Asic resistant Bitcoin and Copycat

Market 2 - Platform

Most of the cryptos here have smart contracts and allow dapps (Decentralized apps) to be build on their platform and to use their token as an exchange of value between dapp services.
  1. Ethereum: 2nd generation blockchain that allows the use of smart contracts. Bad scalability currently, though this concern could be alleviated by the soon to be implemented Lightning Network aka Plasma and its Sharding concept.
  2. EOS: Promising technology that wants to be able do everything, from smart contracts like Ethereum, scalability similar to Nano with 1000 tx/second + near instant transactions and zero fees, to also wanting to be a platform for dapps. However, EOS doesn't have a product yet and everything is just promises still. Highly overvalued right now. However, there are lots of red flags, have dumped $500 million Ether over the last 2 months and possibly bought back EOS to increase the size of their ICO, which has been going on for over a year and has raised several billion dollars. All in all, their market cap is way too high for that and not even having a product.
  3. Cardano: Similar to Ethereum/EOS, however, only promises made with no delivery yet, highly overrated right now. Interesting concept though. Market cap way too high for not even having a product. Somewhat promising technology.
  4. VeChain: Singapore-based project that’s building a business enterprise platform and inventory tracking system. Examples are verifying genuine luxury goods and food supply chains. Has one of the strongest communities in the crypto world. Most hyped token of all, with merit though.
  5. Neo: Neo is a platform, similar to Eth, but more extensive, allowing dapps and smart contracts, but with a different smart contract gas system, consensus mechanism (PoS vs. dBfT), governance model, fixed vs unfixed supply, expensive contracts vs nearly free contracts, different ideologies for real world adoption. There are currently only 9 nodes, each of which are being run by a company/entity hand selected by the NEO council (most of which are located in china) and are under contract. This means that although the locations of the nodes may differ, ultimately the neo council can bring them down due to their legal contracts. In fact this has been done in the past when the neo council was moving 50 million neo that had been locked up. Also dbft (or neo's implmentation of it) has failed underload causing network outages during major icos. The first step in decentralization is that the NEO Counsel will select trusted nodes (Universities, business partners, etc.) and slowly become less centralized that way. The final step in decentralization will be allowing NEO holders to vote for new nodes, similar to a DPoS system (ARK/EOS/LISK). NEO has a regulation/government friendly ideology. Finally they are trying to work undewith the Chinese government in regards to regulations. If for some reason they wanted it shut down, they could just shut it down.
  6. Stellar: PoS system, similar goals as Ripple, but more of a platform than only a currency. 80% of Stellar are owned by Stellar.org still, making the currency centralized.
  7. Ethereum classic: Original Ethereum that decided not to fork after a hack. The Ethereum that we know is its fork. Uninteresing, because it has a lot of less resources than Ethereum now and a lot less community support.
  8. Ziliqa: Zilliqa is building a new way of sharding. 2400 tpx already tested, 10,000 tps soon possible by being linearly scalable with the number of nodes. That means, the more nodes, the faster the network gets. They are looking at implementing privacy as well.
  9. QTUM: Enables Smart contracts on the Bitcoin blockchain. Useful.
  10. Icon: Korean ethereum. Decentralized application platform that's building communities in partnership with banks, insurance providers, hospitals, and universities. Focused on ID verification and payments. No big differentiators to the other 20 Ethereums, except that is has a product. That is a plus. Maybe cheap alternative to Ethereum.
  11. LISK: Lisk's difference to other BaaS is that side chains are independent to the main chain and have to have their own nodes. Similar to neo whole allows dapps to deploy their blockchain to. However, Lisk is currently somewhat centralized with a small group of members owning more than 50% of the delegated positions. Lisk plans to change the consensus algorithm for that reason in the near future.
  12. Rchain: Similar to Ethereum with smart contract, though much more scalable at an expected 40,000 TPS and possible 100,000 TPS. Not launched yet. No product launched yet, though promising technology. Not overvalued, probably at the right price right now.
  13. ARDR: Similar to Lisk. Ardor is a public blockchain platform that will allow people to utilize the blockchain technology of Nxt through the use of child chains. A child chain, which is a ‘light’ blockchain that can be customized to a certain extent, is designed to allow easy self-deploy for your own blockchain. Nxt claims that users will "not need to worry" about security, as that part is now handled by the main chain (Ardor). This is the chief innovation of Ardor. Ardor was evolved from NXT by the same company. NEM started as a NXT clone.
  14. Ontology: Similar to Neo. Interesting coin
  15. Bytom: Bytom is an interactive protocol of multiple byte assets. Heterogeneous byte-assets (indigenous digital currency, digital assets) that operate in different forms on the Bytom Blockchain and atomic assets (warrants, securities, dividends, bonds, intelligence information, forecasting information and other information that exist in the physical world) can be registered, exchanged, gambled and engaged in other more complicated and contract-based interoperations via Bytom.
  16. Nxt: Similar to Lisk
  17. Stratis: Different to LISK, Stratis will allow businesses and organizations to create their own blockchain according to their own needs, but secured on the parent Stratis chain. Stratis’s simple interface will allow organizations to quickly and easily deploy and/or test blockchain functionality of the Ethereum, BitShares, BitCoin, Lisk and Stratis environements.
  18. Status: Status provides access to all of Ethereum’s decentralized applications (dapps) through an app on your smartphone. It opens the door to mass adoption of Ethereum dapps by targeting the fastest growing computer segment in the world – smartphone users.16. Ark: Fork of Lisk that focuses on a smaller feature set. Ark wallets can only vote for one delegate at a time which forces delegates to compete against each other and makes cartel formations incredibly hard, if not impossible.
  19. Neblio: Similar to Neo, but 30x smaller market cap.
  20. NEM: Is similar to Neo No marketing team, very high market cap for little clarilty what they do.
  21. Bancor: Bancor is a Decentralized Liquidity Network that allows you to hold any Ethereum token and convert it to any other token in the network, with no counter party, at an automatically calculated price, using a simple web wallet.
  22. Dragonchain: The Purpose of DragonChain is to help companies quickly and easily incorporate blockchain into their business applications. Many companies might be interested in making this transition because of the benefits associated with serving clients over a blockchain – increased efficiency and security for transactions, a reduction of costs from eliminating potential fraud and scams, etc.
  23. Skycoin: Transactions with zero fees that take apparently two seconds, unlimited transaction rate, no need for miners and block rewards, low power usage, all of the usual cryptocurrency technical vulnerabilities fixed, a consensus mechanism superior to anything that exists, resistant to all conceivable threats (government censorship, community infighting, cybenucleaconventional warfare, etc). Skycoin has their own consensus algorithm known as Obelisk written and published academically by an early developer of Ethereum. Obelisk is a non-energy intensive consensus algorithm based on a concept called ‘web of trust dynamics’ which is completely different to PoW, PoS, and their derivatives. Skywire, the flagship application of Skycoin, has the ambitious goal of decentralizing the internet at the hardware level and is about to begin the testnet in April. However, this is just one of the many facets of the Skycoin ecosystem. Skywire will not only provide decentralized bandwidth but also storage and computation, completing the holy trinity of commodities essential for the new internet. Skycion a smear campaign launched against it, though they seem legit and reliable. Thus, they are probably undervalued.

Market 3 - Ecosystem

The 3rd market with 11 coins is comprised of ecosystem coins, which aim to strengthen the ease of use within the crypto space through decentralized exchanges, open standards for apps and more
  1. Nebulas: Similar to how Google indexes webpages Nebulas will index blockchain projects, smart contracts & data using the Nebulas rank algorithm that sifts & sorts the data. Developers rewarded NAS to develop & deploy on NAS chain. Nebulas calls this developer incentive protocol – basically rewards are issued based on how often dapp/contract etc. is used, the more the better the rewards and Proof of devotion. Works like DPoS except the best, most economically incentivised developers (Bookkeeppers) get the forging spots. Ensuring brains stay with the project (Cross between PoI & PoS). 2,400 TPS+, DAG used to solve the inter-transaction dependencies in the PEE (Parallel Execution Environment) feature, first crypto Wallet that supports the Lightening Network.
  2. Waves: Decentralized exchange and crowdfunding platform. Let’s companies and projects to issue and manage their own digital coin tokens to raise money.
  3. Salt: Leveraging blockchain assets to secure cash loands. Plans to offer cash loans in traditional currencies, backed by your cryptocurrency assets. Allows lenders worldwide to skip credit checks for easier access to affordable loans.
  4. CHAINLINK: ChainLink is a decentralized oracle service, the first of its kind. Oracles are defined as an ‘agent’ that finds and verifies real-world occurrences and submits this information to a blockchain to be used in smart contracts.With ChainLink, smart contract users can use the network’s oracles to retrieve data from off-chain application program interfaces (APIs), data pools, and other resources and integrate them into the blockchain and smart contracts. Basically, ChainLink takes information that is external to blockchain applications and puts it on-chain. The difference to Aeternity is that Chainlink deploys the smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain while Aeternity has its own chain.
  5. WTC: Combines blockchain with IoT to create a management system for supply chains Interesting
  6. Ethos unifyies all cryptos. Ethos is building a multi-cryptocurrency phone wallet. The team is also building an investment diversification tool and a social network
  7. Aion: Aion is the token that pays for services on the Aeternity platform.
  8. USDT: is no cryptocurrency really, but a replacement for dollar for trading After months of asking for proof of dollar backing, still no response from Tether.

Market 4 - Privacy

The 4th market are privacy coins. As you might know, Bitcoin is not anonymous. If the IRS or any other party asks an exchange who is the identity behind a specific Bitcoin address, they know who you are and can track back almost all of the Bitcoin transactions you have ever made and all your account balances. Privacy coins aim to prevent exactly that through address fungability, which changes addresses constantly, IP obfuscation and more. There are 2 types of privacy coins, one with completely privacy and one with optional privacy. Optional Privacy coins like Dash and Nav have the advantage of more user friendliness over completely privacy coins such as Monero and Enigma.
  1. Monero: Currently most popular privacy coin, though with a very high market cap. Since their privacy is all on chain, all prior transactions would be deanonymized if their protocol is ever cracked. This requires a quantum computing attack though. PIVX is better in that regard.
  2. Zcash: A decentralized and open-source cryptocurrency that hide the sender, recipient, and value of transactions. Offers users the option to make transactions public later for auditing. Decent privacy coin, though no default privacy
  3. Verge: Calls itself privacy coin without providing private transactions, multiple problems over the last weeks has a toxic community, and way too much hype for what they have.
  4. Bytecoin: First privacy-focused cryptocurrency with anonymous transactions. Bytecoin’s code was later adapted to create Monero, the more well-known anonymous cryptocurrency. Has several scam accusations, 80% pre-mine, bad devs, bad tech
  5. Bitcoin Private: A merge fork of Bitcoin and Zclassic with Zclassic being a fork of Zcash with the difference of a lack of a founders fee required to mine a valid block. This promotes a fair distribution, preventing centralized coin ownership and control. Bitcoin private offers the optional ability to keep the sender, receiver, and amount private in a given transaction. However, this is already offered by several good privacy coins (Monero, PIVX) and Bitcoin private doesn't offer much more beyond this.
  6. Komodo: The Komodo blockchain platform uses Komodo’s open-source cryptocurrency for doing transparent, anonymous, private, and fungible transactions. They are then made ultra-secure using Bitcoin’s blockchain via a Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol and decentralized crowdfunding (ICO) platform to remove middlemen from project funding. Offers services for startups to create and manage their own Blockchains.
  7. PIVX: As a fork of Dash, PIVX uses an advanced implementation of the Zerocoin protocol to provide it’s privacy. This is a form of zeroknowledge proofs, which allow users to spend ‘Zerocoins’ that have no link back to them. Unlike Zcash u have denominations in PIVX, so they can’t track users by their payment amount being equal to the amount of ‘minted’ coins, because everyone uses the same denominations. PIVX is also implementing Bulletproofs, just like Monero, and this will take care of arguably the biggest weakness of zeroknowledge protocols: the trusted setup.
  8. Zcoin: PoW cryptocurrency. Private financial transactions, enabled by the Zerocoin Protocol. Zcoin is the first full implementation of the Zerocoin Protocol, which allows users to have complete privacy via Zero-Knowledge cryptographic proofs.
  9. Enigma: Monero is to Bitcoin what enigma is to Ethereum. Enigma is for making the data used in smart contracts private. More of a platform for dapps than a currency like Monero. Very promising.
  10. Navcoin: Like bitcoin but with added privacy and pos and 1,170 tps, but only because of very short 30 second block times. Though, privacy is optional, but aims to be more user friendly than Monero. However, doesn't really decide if it wants to be a privacy coin or not. Same as Zcash.Strong technology, non-shady team.
  11. Tenx: Raised 80 million, offers cryptocurrency-linked credit cards that let you spend virtual money in real life. Developing a series of payment platforms to make spending cryptocurrency easier. However, the question is if full privacy coins will be hindered in growth through government regulations and optional privacy coins will become more successful through ease of use and no regulatory hindrance.

Market 5 - Currency Exchange Tool

Due to the sheer number of different cryptocurrencies, exchanging one currency for the other it still cumbersome. Further, merchants don’t want to deal with overcluttered options of accepting cryptocurrencies. This is where exchange tool like Req come in, which allow easy and simple exchange of currencies.
  1. Cryptonex: Fiat and currency exchange between various blockchain services, similar to REQ.
  2. QASH: Qash is used to fuel its liquid platform which will be an exchange that will distribute their liquidity pool. Its product, the Worldbook is a multi-exchange order book that matches crypto to crypto, and crypto to fiat and the reverse across all currencies. E.g., someone is selling Bitcoin is USD on exchange1 not owned by Quoine and someone is buying Bitcoin in EURO on exchange 2 not owned by Quoine. If the forex conversions and crypto conversions match then the trade will go through and the Worldbook will match it, it'll make the sale and the purchase on either exchange and each user will get what they wanted, which means exchanges with lower liquidity if they join the Worldbook will be able to fill orders and take trade fees they otherwise would miss out on.They turned it on to test it a few months ago for an hour or so and their exchange was the top exchange in the world by 4x volume for the day because all Worldbook trades ran through it. Binance wants BNB to be used on their one exchange. Qash wants their QASH token embedded in all of their partners. More info here https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/8a8lnwhich_are_your_top_5_favourite_coins_out_of_the/dwyjcbb/?context=3
  3. Kyber: network Exchange between cryptocurrencies, similar to REQ. Features automatic coin conversions for payments. Also offers payment tools for developers and a cryptocurrency wallet.
  4. Achain: Building a boundless blockchain world like Req .
  5. Req: Exchange between cryptocurrencies.
  6. Bitshares: Exchange between cryptocurrencies. Noteworthy are the 1.5 second average block times and throughput potential of 100,000 transactions per second with currently 2,400 TPS having been proven. However, bitshares had several Scam accusations in the past.
  7. Loopring: A protocol that will enable higher liquidity between exchanges and personal wallets.
  8. ZRX: Open standard for dapps. Open, permissionless protocol allowing for ERC20 tokens to be traded on the Ethereum blockchain. In 0x protocol, orders are transported off-chain, massively reducing gas costs and eliminating blockchain bloat. Relayers help broadcast orders and collect a fee each time they facilitate a trade. Anyone can build a relayer.

Market 6 - Gaming

With an industry size of $108B worldwide, Gaming is one of the largest markets in the world. For sure, cryptocurrencies will want to have a share of that pie.
  1. Storm: Mobile game currency on a platform with 9 million players.
  2. Fun: A platform for casino operators to host trustless, provably-fair gambling through the use of smart contracts, as well as creating their own implementation of state channels for scalability.
  3. Electroneum: Mobile game currency They have lots of technical problems, such as several 51% attacks
  4. Wax: Marketplace to trade in-game items

Market 7 - Misc

There are various markets being tapped right now. They are all summed up under misc.
  1. OMG: Omise is designed to enable financial services for people without bank accounts. It works worldwide and with both traditional money and cryptocurrencies.
  2. Power ledger: Australian blockchain-based cryptocurrency and energy trading platform that allows for decentralized selling and buying of renewable energy. Unique market and rather untapped market in the crypto space.
  3. Populous: A platform that connects business owners and invoice buyers without middlemen. Invoice sellers get cash flow to fund their business and invoice buyers earn interest. Similar to OMG, small market.
  4. Monacoin: The first Japanese cryptocurrency. Focused on micro-transactions and based on a popular internet meme of a type-written cat. This makes it similar to Dogecoin. Very niche, tiny market.
  5. Revain: Legitimizing reviews via the blockchain. Interesting concept, though market not as big.
  6. Augur: Platform to forecast and make wagers on the outcome of real-world events (AKA decentralized predictions). Uses predictions for a “wisdom of the crowd” search engine. Not launched yet.
  7. Substratum: Revolutionzing hosting industry via per request billing as a decentralized internet hosting system. Uses a global network of private computers to create the free and open internet of the future. Participants earn cryptocurrency. Interesting concept.
  8. Veritaseum: Is supposed to be a peer to peer gateway, though it looks like very much like a scam.
  9. TRON: Tronix is looking to capitalize on ownership of internet data to content creators. However, they plagiarized their white paper, which is a no go. They apologized, so it needs to be seen how they will conduct themselves in the future. Extremely high market cap for not having a product, nor proof of concept.
  10. Syscoin: A cryptocurrency with a decentralized marketplace that lets people buy and sell products directly without third parties. Trying to remove middlemen like eBay and Amazon.
  11. Hshare: Most likely scam because of no code changes, most likely pump and dump scheme, dead community.
  12. BAT: An Ethereum-based token that can be exchanged between content creators, users, and advertisers. Decentralized ad-network that pays based on engagement and attention.
  13. Dent: Decentralizeed exchange of mobile data, enabling mobile data to be marketed, purchased or distributed, so that users can quickly buy or sell data from any user to another one.
  14. Ncash: End to end encrypted Identification system for retailers to better serve their customers .
  15. Factom Secure record-keeping system that allows companies to store their data directly on the Blockchain. The goal is to make records more transparent and trustworthy .

Market 8 - Social network

Web 2.0 is still going strong and Web 3.0 is not going to ignore it. There are several gaming tokens already out there and a few with decent traction already, such as Steem, which is Reddit with voting through money is a very interesting one.
  1. Mithril: As users create content via social media, they will be rewarded for their contribution, the better the contribution, the more they will earn
  2. Steem: Like Reddit, but voting with money. Already launched product and Alexa rank 1,000 Thumbs up.
  3. Rdd: Reddcoin makes the process of sending and receiving money fun and rewarding for everyone. Reddcoin is dedicated to one thing – tipping on social networks as a way to bring cryptocurrency awareness and experience to the general public.
  4. Kin: Token for the platform Kik. Kik has a massive user base of 400 million people. Replacing paying with FIAT with paying with KIN might get this token to mass adoption very quickly.

Market 9 - Fee token

Popular exchanges realized that they can make a few billion dollars more by launching their own token. Owning these tokens gives you a reduction of trading fees. Very handy and BNB (Binance Coin) has been one of the most resilient tokens, which have withstood most market drops over the last weeks and was among the very few coins that could show growth.
  1. BNB: Fee token for Binance
  2. Gas: Not a Fee token for an exchange, but it is a dividend paid out on Neo and a currency that can be used to purchase services for dapps.
  3. Kucoin: Fee token for Kucoin

Market 10 - Decentralized Data Storage

Currently, data storage happens with large companies or data centers that are prone to failure or losing data. Decentralized data storage makes loss of data almost impossible by distributing your files to numerous clients that hold tiny pieces of your data. Remember Torrents? Torrents use a peer-to-peer network. It is similar to that. Many users maintain copies of the same file, when someone wants a copy of that file, they send a request to the peer-to-peer network., users who have the file, known as seeds, send fragments of the file to the requester., he requester receives many fragments from many different seeds, and the torrent software recompiles these fragments to form the original file.
  1. Gbyte: Byteball data is stored and ordered using directed acyclic graph (DAG) rather than blockchain. This allows all users to secure each other's data by referencing earlier data units created by other users, and also removes scalability limits common for blockchains, such as blocksize issue.
  2. Siacoin: Siacoin is decentralized storage platform. Distributes encrypted files to thousands of private users who get paid for renting out their disk space. Anybody with siacoins can rent storage from hosts on Sia. This is accomplish via "smart" storage contracts stored on the Sia blockchain. The smart contract provides a payment to the host only after the host has kept the file for a given amount of time. If the host loses the file, the host does not get paid.
  3. Maidsafecoin: MaidSafe stands for Massive Array of Internet Disks, Secure Access for Everyone.Instead of working with data centers and servers that are common today and are vulnerable to data theft and monitoring, SAFE’s network uses advanced P2P technology to bring together the spare computing capacity of all SAFE users and create a global network. You can think of SAFE as a crowd-sourced internet. All data and applications reside in this network. It’s an autonomous network that automatically sets prices and distributes data and rents out hard drive disk space with a Blockchain-based storage solutions.When you upload a file to the network, such as a photo, it will be broken into pieces, hashed, and encrypted. The data is then randomly distributed across the network. Redundant copies of the data are created as well so that if someone storing your file turns off their computer, you will still have access to your data. And don’t worry, even with pieces of your data on other people’s computers, they won’t be able to read them. You can earn MadeSafeCoins by participating in storing data pieces from the network on your computer and thus earning a Proof of Resource.
  4. Storj: Storj aims to become a cloud storage platform that can’t be censored or monitored, or have downtime. Your files are encrypted, shredded into little pieces called 'shards', and stored in a decentralized network of computers around the globe. No one but you has a complete copy of your file, not even in an encrypted form.

Market 11 - Cloud computing

Obviously, renting computing power, one of the biggest emerging markets as of recent years, e.g. AWS and Digital Ocean, is also a service, which can be bought and managed via the blockchain.
  1. Golem: Allows easy use of Supercomputer in exchange for tokens. People worldwide can rent out their computers to the network and get paid for that service with Golem tokens.
  2. Elf: Allows easy use of Cloud computing in exchange for tokens.

Market 12 - Stablecoin

Last but not least, there are 2 stablecoins that have established themselves within the market. A stable coin is a coin that wants to be independent of the volatility of the crypto markets. This has worked out pretty well for Maker and DGD, accomplished through a carefully diversified currency fund and backing each token by 1g or real gold respectively. DO NOT CONFUSE DGD AND MAKER with their STABLE COINS DGX and DAI. DGD and MAKER are volatile, because they are the companies of DGX and DAI. DGX and DAI are the stable coins.
  1. DGD: Platform of the Stablecoin DGX. Every DGX coin is backed by 1g of gold and make use proof of asset consensus.
  2. Maker: Platform of the Stablecoin DAI that doesn't vary much in price through widespread and smart diversification of assets.
EDIT: Added a risk factor from 0 to 10. The baseline is 2 for any crypto. Significant scandals, mishaps, shady practices, questionable technology, increase the risk factor. Not having a product yet automatically means a risk factor of 6. Strong adoption and thus strong scrutiny or positive community lower the risk factor.
EDIT2: Added a subjective potential factor from 0 to 10, where its overall potential and a small or big market cap is factored in. Bitcoin with lots of potential only gets a 9, because of its massive market cap, because if Bitcoin goes 10x, smaller coins go 100x, PIVX gets a 10 for being as good as Monero while carrying a 10x smaller market cap, which would make PIVX go 100x if Monero goes 10x.
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stock marketing full guide 2019

stock marketing full guide 2019
stock market

What's the Stock Market? full guide.

The inventory market refers back to the assortment of markets and exchanges the place common actions of shopping for, promoting, and issuance of shares of publicly-held firms happen. Such monetary actions are performed by way of institutionalized formal exchanges or over-the-counter (OTC) marketplaces which function underneath an outlined set of laws. There may be a number of inventory buying and selling venues in a rustic or an area which permit transactions in shares and different types of securities.
Whereas each phrase - inventory market and inventory alternate - are used interchangeably, the latter time period is usually a subset of the previous. If one says that she trades within the inventory market, it implies that she buys and sells shares/equities on one (or extra) of the inventory alternate(s) which are a part of the general inventory market. The main inventory exchanges within the U.S. embrace the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), Nasdaq, the Higher Different Buying and selling System (BATS). and the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE). These main nationwide exchanges, together with a number of different exchanges working within the nation, type the inventory market of the U.S.
Although it's known as an inventory market or fairness market and is primarily identified for buying and selling shares/equities, different monetary securities - like exchange-traded funds (ETF), corporate bonds and derivatives primarily based on shares, commodities, currencies, and bonds - are additionally traded within the inventory markets.

Read also.

Inventory Market

Understanding the Inventory Market

Whereas right this moment it's potential to buy nearly every part online, there's often a delegated marketplace for each commodity. For example, folks drive to metropolis outskirts and farmlands to buy Christmas bushes, go to the native timber market to purchase wooden and different obligatory materials for house furnishings and renovations, and go to shops like Walmart for his or her common grocery provides.
Such devoted markets function a platform the place quite a few patrons and sellers meet, work together and transact. For the reason that a variety of market individuals is large, one is assured of good worth. For instance, if there is just one vendor of Christmas bushes in your complete metropolis, he could have the freedom to cost any worth he pleases because the patrons gained’t have wherever else to go. If the variety of tree sellers is massive in a standard market, they must compete in opposition to one another to draw patrons. The patrons can be spoiled for selection with low- or optimum-pricing making it a good market with worth transparency. Even whereas buying online, patrons examine costs supplied by totally different sellers on the identical buying portal or throughout totally different portals to get one of the best offers, forcing the assorted online sellers to supply one of the best worth.
An inventory market is an identical designated marketplace for buying and selling numerous sorts of securities in a managed, safe and managed the atmosphere. For the reason that inventory market brings collectively a whole bunch of hundreds of market individuals who want to purchase and promote shares, it ensures honest pricing practices and transparency in transactions. Whereas earlier inventory markets used to situation and deal in paper-based bodily share certificates, the fashionable day computer-aided inventory markets function electronically.

How the Inventory Market Works

In a nutshell, inventory markets present a safe and controlled atmosphere the place market individuals can transact in shares and different eligible monetary devices with confidence with zero- to low-operational danger. Working underneath the outlined guidelines as acknowledged by the regulator, the inventory markets act as primary markets and as secondary markets.
As the main market, the inventory market permits firms to the situation and promote their shares to the wider public for the primary time by way of the method of initial public offerings (IPO). This exercise helps firms increase obligatory capital from traders. It primarily implies that an organization divides itself into quite a few shares (say, 20 million shares) and sells part of these shares (say, 5 million shares) to the wider public at a worth (say, $10 per share).
To facilitate this course of, an organization wants a market the place these shares may be offered. This market is offered by the inventory market. If every part goes as per the plans, the corporate will efficiently promote the 5 million shares at a worth of $10 per share and acquire $50 million value of funds. Traders will get the corporate shares which they will anticipate to carry for his or her most well-liked length, in anticipation of rising in share worth and any potential revenue within the type of dividend funds. The inventory alternate acts as a facilitator for this capital elevating course of and receives a charge for its providers from the corporate and its monetary companions.
Following the first-time share issuance IPO train known as the itemizing course of, the inventory alternate additionally serves because the buying and selling platform that facilitates common shopping for and promoting of the listed shares. This constitutes the secondary market. The inventory alternate earns a charge for each commerce that happens on its platform in the course of the secondary market exercise.
The inventory alternate shoulders the accountability of making certain price transparency, liquidity, price discovery and honest dealings in such buying and selling actions. As nearly all main inventory markets throughout the globe now function electronically, the alternate maintains buying and selling techniques that effectively handle the purchase and promote orders from numerous market individuals. They carry out the worth matching operate to facilitate commerce execution at a worth honest to each patron and sellers.
A listed firm can also supply new, extra shares by way of different choices at a later stage, like by way of rights issue or by way of follow-on offers. They could even buyback or delist their shares. The inventory alternate facilitates such transactions.
The inventory alternate usually creates and maintains numerous market-level and sector-specific indicators, just like the S&P 500 index or Nasdaq 100 index, which give a measure to trace the motion of the general market.
The inventory exchanges additionally preserve all firm information, bulletins, and monetary reporting, which may be often accessed on their official web sites. An inventory alternate additionally helps numerous different corporate-level, transaction-related actions. For example, worthwhile firms might reward traders by paying dividends which often comes from the part of the corporate’s earnings. The alternate maintains all such data and will assist its processing to a sure extent.

Features of an Inventory Market

An inventory market primarily serves the next features:
Truthful Dealing in Securities Transactions: Relying on the usual rules of demand and supply, the inventory alternate wants to make sure that all market individuals have instantaneous entry to information for all purchase and promote orders thereby serving to within the honest and clear pricing of securities. Moreover, it also needs to carry out environment-friendly matching of acceptable purchase and promote orders.
For instance, there could also be three patrons who've positioned orders for purchasing Microsoft shares at $100, $105 and $110, and there could also be 4 sellers who're keen to promote Microsoft shares at $110, $112, $115 and $120. The alternate (by way of their pc operated automated buying and selling techniques) wants to make sure that one of the best purchase and greatest promote are matched, which on this case is at $110 for the given amount of commerce.
Environment-friendly Value Discovery: Inventory markets must assist an environment-friendly mechanism for worth discovery, which refers back to the act of deciding the correct worth of a safety and is often carried out by assessing market provide and demand and different components related to the transactions.
Say, a U.S.-based software program firm is buying and selling at a worth of $100 and has a market capitalization of $5 billion. Information merchandise is available in that the EU regulator has imposed a wonderful of $2 billion on the corporate which primarily implies that 40 % of the corporate’s worth could also be worn out. Whereas the inventory market might have imposed a buying and selling worth vary of $90 and $110 on the corporate’s share worth, it ought to effectively change the permissible buying and selling worth restrict to accommodate for the potential adjustments within the share worth, else shareholders might battle to commerce at a good worth.
Liquidity Upkeep: Whereas getting the variety of patrons and sellers for a specific monetary safety are uncontrolled for the inventory market, it wants to make sure that whosoever is certified and keen to commerce will get instantaneous entry to position orders which ought to get executed on the honest worth.
Safety and Validity of Transactions: Whereas extra individuals are vital for environment-friendly working of a market, the identical market wants to make sure that all individuals are verified and stay compliant with the required guidelines and laws, leaving no room for default by any of the events. Moreover, it ought to make sure that all related entities working out there should additionally adhere to the principles, and work inside the authorized framework given by the regulator.
Help All Eligible Kinds of Contributors: A market is made by quite a lot of individuals, which embrace market makers, traders, merchants, speculators, and hedgers. All these individuals function within the inventory market with totally different roles and features. For example, an investor might purchase shares and maintain them for long run spanning a few years, whereas a dealer might enter and exit a place inside seconds. A market maker gives obligatory liquidity out there, whereas a hedger might prefer to commerce in derivatives for mitigating the danger concerned in investments. The inventory market ought to make sure that all such individuals are capable of function seamlessly fulfilling their desired roles to make sure the market continues to function effectively.
Investor Safety: Together with rich and institutional traders, a really massive variety of small traders are additionally served by the inventory marketplace for their small quantity of investments. These traders might have restricted monetary information, and will not be totally conscious of the pitfalls of investing in shares and different listed devices. The inventory alternate should implement obligatory measures to supply the required safety to such traders to protect them from monetary loss and guarantee buyer belief.
For example, an inventory alternate might categorize shares in numerous segments relying on their danger profiles and permit restricted or no buying and selling by widespread traders in high-risk shares. Derivatives, which have been described by Warren Buffett as monetary weapons of mass destruction, aren't for everybody as one might lose far more than they guess for. Exchanges usually impose restrictions to forestall people with restricted revenue and information from entering into dangerous bets of derivatives.
Balanced Regulation: Listed firms are largely regulated and their dealings are monitored by market regulators, just like the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) of the U.S. Moreover, exchanges additionally mandate sure necessities – like, well timed submitting of quarterly monetary stories and instantaneous reporting of any related developments - to make sure all market individuals grow to be conscious of company happenings. Failure to stick to the laws can result in the suspension of buying and selling by the exchanges and different disciplinary measures.

Regulating the Inventory Market

An area monetary regulator or competent financial authority or institute is assigned the duty of regulating the inventory market of a rustic. The Securities and Alternate Fee (SEC) is the regulatory physique charged with overseeing the U.S. inventory markets. The SEC is a federal company that works independently of the federal government and political strain. The mission of the SEC is acknowledged as: "to guard traders, preserve honest, orderly, and environment-friendly markets, and facilitate capital formation."

Inventory Market Contributors

Together with long-term traders and brief time period merchants, there are a lot of several types of gamers related to the inventory market. Everyone has a singular function, however, lots of the roles are intertwined and rely on one another to make the market run successfully.
  • Stockbrokers, also called registered representatives within the U.S., are the licensed professionals who purchase and promote securities on behalf of traders. The brokers act as intermediaries between the inventory exchanges and the traders by shopping for and promoting shares on the traders' behalf. An account with a retail dealer is required to realize entry to the markets.
  • Portfolio managers are professionals who make investments portfolios, or collections of securities, for purchasers. These managers get suggestions from analysts and make the purchase or promote choices for the portfolio. Mutual fund firms, hedge funds, and pension plans use portfolio managers to make choices and set the funding methods for the cash they maintain.
  • Investment bankers characterize firms in numerous capacities, comparable to personal firms that wish to go public through an IPO or firms which are concerned in pending mergers and acquisitions. They care for the itemizing course of in compliance with the regulatory necessities of the inventory market.
  • Custodian and depot service suppliers, that are establishment holding prospects' securities for safekeeping in order to reduce the danger of their theft or loss, additionally function in sync with the alternative to switch shares to/from the respective accounts of transacting events primarily based on buying and selling on the inventory market.
  • Market maker: A market maker is a broker-dealer who facilitates the buying and selling of shares by posting bid and ask costs together with sustaining a listing of shares. He ensures adequate liquidity out there for a specific (set of) share(s), and income from the distinction between the bid and the ask worth he quotes.

How Inventory Exchanges Make Cash

Inventory exchanges function as for-profit institutes and cost a charge for his or her providers. The first supply of revenue for these inventory exchanges are the revenues from the transaction charges which are charged for every commerce carried out on its platform. Moreover, exchanges earn income from the itemizing charge charged to firms in the course of the IPO course of and different follow-on choices.
The alternate additionally earn from promoting market information generated on its platform - like real-time information, historical information, abstract information, and reference information – which is significant for fairness analysis and different makes use of. Many exchanges will even promote know-how merchandise, like a buying and selling terminal and devoted community connection to the alternate, to the events for an acceptable charge.
The alternate might supply privileged providers like high-frequency trading to bigger purchasers like mutual funds and asset management companies (AMC), and earn cash accordingly. There are provisions for regulatory charge and registration charge for various profiles of market individuals, just like the market maker and dealer, which type different sources of revenue for the inventory exchanges.
The alternate additionally make income by licensing their indexes (and their methodology) that are generally used as a benchmark for launching numerous merchandise like mutual funds and ETFs by AMCs.
Many exchanges additionally present programs and certification on numerous monetary matters to trade individuals and earn revenues from such subscriptions.

Competitors for Inventory Markets

Whereas particular person inventory exchanges compete in opposition to one another to get most transaction quantity, they're dealing with menace on two fronts.
Darkish Swimming pools: Dark pools, that are personal exchanges or boards for securities buying and selling and function inside personal teams, are posing a problem to public inventory markets. Although their authorized validity is topic to native laws, they're gaining a reputation as individuals save massive on transaction charges.
Blockchain Ventures: Amid rising reputation of blockchains, many crypto exchanges have emerged. Such exchanges are venues for buying and selling cryptocurrencies and derivatives related to that asset class. Although their reputation stays restricted, they pose a menace to the standard inventory market mannequin by automating a bulk of the work completed by numerous inventory market individuals and by providing zero- to low-cost providers.

Significance of the Inventory Market

The inventory market is among the most significant parts of a free-market economic system.
It permits firms to lift cash by providing inventory shares and company bonds. It lets widespread traders take part within the monetary achievements of the businesses, make income by way of capital gains, and earn cash by way of dividends, though losses are additionally potential. Whereas institutional traders {and professional} cash managers do get pleasure from some privileges owing to their deep pockets, higher information and better danger taking skills, the inventory market makes an attempt to supply a stage taking part in subject to widespread people.
The inventory market works as a platform by way of which financial savings and investments of people are channelized into the productive funding proposals. In the long run, it helps in capital formation & financial progress for the nation.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Inventory markets are very important parts of a free-market economic system as a result of they permit democratized entry to buying and selling and alternate of capital for traders of all types.
  • They carry out a number of features in markets, together with environment-friendly worth discovery and environment-friendly dealing.
  • Within the US, the inventory market is regulated by the SEC and native regulatory our bodies.

Examples of Inventory Markets

The primary inventory market on the planet was the London inventory alternate. It was begun in a coffeehouse, the place merchants used to satisfy to alternate shares, in 1773. The primary inventory alternate in the USA of America began in Philadelphia in 1790. The Buttonwood settlement, so named as a result of it was signed underneath a buttonwood tree, marked the beginnings of New York's Wall Avenue in 1792. The settlement was signed by 24 merchants and was the primary American group of its type to commerce in securities. The merchants renamed their enterprise as New York Inventory and Alternate Board in 1817.
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【翻译Quora上一篇问答】中国是否正在面临一次银行危机(谈到房地产) by phoebeDD on 2016-10-04

Is China really facing a banking crisis? What are its origins?
(中国是否正在面对一次银行危机?其根源又是什么?)



According to a recent article titled China facing full-blown banking crisis, world's top financial watchdog war
ns published in the Telegraph:
(根据近期电讯文章报道:“世界顶级金融观察者发出警告:中国正在面临全面的银行危机”)
China has failed to curb excesses in its credit system and faces mounting risks of a full-blown banking crisis
(中国已对债务违约失去控制,他们正在面对随之而来的全面性银行危机)
(中国债务/GDP 占比图)


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Robin Daverman, Dealmaker
Written Sep 27


Ah, but maybe you want to look around a bit and see how China’s total debt is compared with other economies, like this?
(你可能想看看其他经济体与中国的债务情况相比是怎么样的,如下图)

(G10债务分布图)
If you put China’s data on this chart, it will be somewhere around Canada and New Zealand. Guess Which Country Has Debt Of Nearly 1000% Of GDP... Shocking, isn’t it?
如果你将中国的数据插入上图进行比较的话,中国的数据大约会在加拿大和新西兰之间。猜猜看哪个国家债务大约是自己GDP的10倍....(英国)非常震惊吧
UK has almost 1000% Debt-to-GDP ratio, compared with China’s < 300% Debt-to-GDP ratio, mostly because of that over-sized financial debt - at the end of the day, the government must stand behind it. On top of that, the UK has no resource to sell, hardly any industry left, going through a divorce with EU, and almost never ever meets her fiscal targets. And yet, UK, with its near 1000% debt-to-GDP ratio, is still viewed as the gold standard among safe havens. PRESENTING: The Rosetta Stone Of The Entire Sovereign Debt Crisis Why? Because UK issues debt in her own currency. And who prints the pound? The UK government.
英国的债务/GDP占比将近1000%而中国只是小于300%,其原因是其过于庞大的金融债务——政府最终将不得不为之站台。在此之上,英国没用可出售的资源,没有任何本国工业,正在脱离欧盟,而且英国基本上从来没有达成其财务目标。即使如此,英国仍然被某些传媒视为安全经济体的黄金标准。其原因就是英债都以英镑的方式结算。那么是谁印英镑的呢?英国政府。
Then you take a look at Japan, wow that’s 600%+ debt-to-GDP ratio! But - Japan’s debt is not only mostly internal, in Japanese Yen, but also with 0% or even negative interest. You can roll this kind of debt over practically forever. That’s why people have been yelling about Japanese debt for the last 20 years, and nothing happens.
然后你看看日本,将近600%的债务/GDP占比!但是,日本的债务几乎都是内部的,以日元的形式出售的债务,而且日本是0利率甚至是负利率。实际上这种债务你可以无限积累下去(经济常识:如果是负利率,政府只要保持债务不变,多出来的部分会自行消失)。这就是为啥人们对日债担心了20年但屁事没有发生。
Then you take a look at those economies that have blown up on debt:
Argentina: Government/Sovereign debt in USD, with jurisdiction in New York!Greece: Government/Sovereign debt in Euro, with jurisdiction in Brussels!Iceland: External financial debt → nationalized into Government/Sovereign debt in USD and Euro alone was 700%+ GDP in 2008, with jurisdiction in New York and Brussels.
然后你看看那些因债务问题毁掉的经济体:
阿根廷:政府/主权债务以美元形式结算,其裁判权在纽约!希腊:政府/主权债务以欧元方式结算,其裁判权在布鲁塞尔!冰岛:外部金融债务→债务国有化后2008年政府/主权债务以美元和欧元的形式达到GDP的700%,其裁判权在纽约和布鲁塞尔
Then you look at China, with her debt almost entirely internal, in Chinese RMB to Chinese citizens, government debt at 55%, lower than the US, Japan, and EU average, in her own currency. China’s external debt is about 9% of GDP, globally ranked 184th (less than North Korea, similar to Kosovo) - anyway you look at it, it’s hardly the kind of material to make a banking crisis. China is borrowing a little bit from her own piggy bank. Argentina/Greece/Iceland were borrowing a lot from the Mafia.
然后你看看中国,中国的债务基本都是内部以人民币结算的。中国政府债务只占总债务的55%,比美国,日本和欧盟都要低,再次强调,其债务以人民币结算。中国外部债务只占GDP的9%,全球排行184位(比朝鲜低,比科索沃高)。无论怎么看,你都不会看到中国有任何银行危机的迹象。中国只是向其国内贪心的银行借钱。阿根廷/希腊/冰岛可是像美国欧盟这些黑手党借钱。
PS: The most significant increase in China’s debt is in the financial sector, driven by rising real estate price (which means higher value of housing loans). Right now, the Chinese government is basically using it as a tool to do macro-economic engineering. The goal is to cap urban growth in top tier cities (Beijing, Shanghai, etc.) and push the economic growth to second- and third- tier cities (Hangzhou, the city that just hosted G20, is an example.http://www.g20.org/English/Hangzhou/About/index.html Now you can look back and see why the Chinese government decided to host G20 in a city nobody has ever heard of). This is clearly stated by the Chinese government like 100 times since last year in the official news channels. The reason? Top tier Chinese cities like Shanghai (25 million) already have more city residents than the whole nation of Australia! The metropolitan area of Shanghai (44 million) has more people than the entire population of Canada! In one city! Beijing’s population grew by 8 million within the last decade! The place is simply full.List of cities in China by population and built-up area
PS: 中国最显著的债务增长是在其金融领域内不断升高的房价造成的(不断增高的房贷造成债务问题)。现在中国政府正在利用房价作为宏观经济调控的工具。其目的是限制一线城市的城市化进程和加速二三线城市的发展(刚刚举办了G20的杭州就是个例子,现在你就能知道为啥中国政府将G20放在一个没人听说过的城市举行了)。这些政策中国政府已经在官媒上宣布了无数次。原因就是一线城市,例如上海(2500万人口),其居民数量比阿根廷全国人口还要多!上海都市圈(4400万人口)的人口数量比加拿大全国还要多!北京人口数量在过去的10年内增长了800万!这些城市的人口数量已经饱和了。
In addition to real estate prices, the Chinese government is also doing stuff like restricting residents permits, disallowing second or third homes, even restricting jobs to local residents, everything to say “this place is full. We have these other nice choices, with lower housing prices. Go there.” Young people complaining about housing prices in tier-one cities? But that’s the whole point. The debt you have to take on to live in tier-one cities SHOULD SCARE YOU OFF. The Chinese government is trying to stop the influx of people pouring into tier-one cities, and get these smart and energetic youths to go build two, three, four, five. … more Shanghai’s in other parts of China. 1.4 billion people can’t all fit into tier-one cities.
除了以房地产为手段,中国政府也加强控制了居住证的发放,禁止第二/三套房买入甚至对本地居民的工作种类进行限制,这些都是为了表达一个意思:这些地方都人满为患了。二三线城市有更低的房价和更好的生活条件,快点去那里吧!年轻人都在抱怨一线城市的高房价?但这就是中国政府想要的。你在一线城市生存需要的代价会把你吓退。中国政府正在尝试控制一线城市的人口流入而让有技术和充满活力的年轻人去建设二三四五线城市——让更多的上海出现在国家的其他地方。14亿人口是没可能全部都聚集在一线城市的。
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Paul Denlinger, Involved in China economics study
Written Sep 27


There is too much debt, and a lot of it is likely to turn into bad debt, but that does not equal a banking crisis.
是因为中国贷款太多了,而这些贷款大多数会变成不良贷款,但这些都不等银行危机
Banking crisis may be a nice term to bandy around and get clicks and headlines, but does not really explain what is going on.
银行危机或许是一个十分吸引眼球的头条,但是根本就不能解释实际的情况
There was a lot of debt financing, especially after the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis in the US. In order to keep the economy on a steady keel, the Chinese government, through its banks, pumped money to Chinese state-owned enterprises, in order to keep high employment and maintain an image of “growth”. A lot of this money then found its way into the underground banking system through “wealth management products” and other means. A lot of this has turned into bad debt.
中国政府有过很多次债务融资,特别是08年美国次贷危机之后。为了稳住经济增长,中国政府通过银行将大量人民币注入到国企内以维持就业率和高增长的形象。但这些钱最终大都以理财产品和其他形式流进了地下钱庄。这些大部分都变成了不良贷款。
Another problem area, which frequently overlaps with the “wealth management products” is the local government financing vehicle used to fund local property development, which I have discussed here: Paul Denlinger's answer to Why does China have so many ghost towns?
另一个有问题的领域,和“理财产品”有莫大关联的,就是地方政府为当地基础建设所采用的金融工具(我在这个地方有详细的分析:https://www.quora.com/Why-does-China-have-so-many-ghost-towns/answePaul-Denlinger?srid=tR&share=22b99cfc
What is likely to happen in China is that growth will slow down in some areas, while there will be certain newer parts of the economy which will continue to grow. If the Chinese government is able to support the newer parts of the economy and help them to grow, while cutting back on loans to the weaker parts of the economy, it may be able to handle this transition better.
最可能发生的情况就是中国的经济增长将会放缓,但是肯定会用新的增站点。如果中国政府能支持新的增长点而且能减低夕阳工业的不良贷款率,那么或许能更好地度过过渡期。
This is exactly what the Chinese government is trying to do and you can read about it here:Here is how China is going to quietly save its economy
这些正是中国政府正在尝试去做的,你可以读读这个文章了解一下:http://www.scmp.com/news/china/economy/article/2022491/china-deploys-policy-banks-stealth-mission-stimulate-growth
So, if you are expecting there to be a dramatic run on the banks, and the Chinese people to take to the streets and overthrow the Chinese Communist Party, and become a full-blown democracy like Taiwan, Japan or South Korea, you are very likely to be disappointed.
所以,如果你是期待一次强烈的bank run(自行百度啥是bank run),然后中国人民上街推翻TG,中国大陆变成与台湾,日本韩国一样的政体,那么你要失望了。
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Nikhil Ambhorkar, Self studied Finance.
Written Sep 26


Is China facing a Banking crisis?
中国是在面临一个银行危机吗?
Yes.

Is it facing a full blown Banking crisis?
中国正在面临一个全面性的银行危机吗?
No.

Combined debt of China is almost 300% of its GDP. But the the categorized in 4 parts as it is shown in the image with the question too.
中国的总债务大概是GDP的300%。但是分在了如图所示的4个领域内。
The corporate debt has the lion's portion of the total debt. The household debt and non corporate debt are nothing to worry about because it is less many other developed countries and has some room to grow.
公司债务在总债务中占了大头。个人债务和非公司债务根本没啥可担心的因为这些比大多数发达国家还要低所以还有增长的空间。
Government Debt is not too big when compared to standards set by many global institutions like IMF, World Bank, etc.
政府债务以多数国际组织,例如世行和IMF,设定得标准来看其实不高。
The only major concern which is of a serious magnitude is the corporate debt. This is also reiterated by many economists.
最主要的关注点就是公司债务了。许多经济学家都重申了这点无数次了。
Now the problem with China is that data that comes out of major Chinese institutions is murky so their are many different types of estimates by many different institutions but the common theme in it is corporate debt and its size.
中国最大的问题就是中国国内组织公布的数据来源不清晰所以不同的国际组织对中国经济的实际情况估算会不一样。但所有组织最关心的都是中国的公司债务与其规模。
Corporate debt consists of debt owned by state owned corporations and private corporations. Private corporations in China are generally crowded out by the state owned corporations because of connections and political agenda.
公司债务又分成了国企和私企的债务。中国私企大多数收到国企排挤,这是有政体造成的。
Many state owned corporations have invested into unproductive projects as a result of excess boost given by government after 2008 to prop up the economy. This has resulted in a huge amount of NPAs. So, in all the major problem is state owned corporations piling up huge amount of debt. To solve this problem, the government tried to convert the debt into shares which the bank owns and can recover money through profit dividends but this was one of the causes for last year's stock market crash.
在08年过度的经济刺激政策下,很多国企在许多无效益项目上投了许多钱。这造成了大量的无效能资产。所以,最大的问题是国企堆积了大量债务。为了解决这个问题,政府正在尝试将国企的债务转化为股份,那么银行就能将债务转化为红利而最终将债务收回了。但这造成了上年的股灾.....
Hence, it is a big crisis but not the one government cannot handle with so much trade surplus and forex reserves. But actions are definitely needed to stop it from growing into a bigger problem.
所以,这是一个危机但仍然是政府能控制的,毕竟中国政府有大量贸易顺差和外汇储备。但是仍然需要实际行动来防止事态的扩展。
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印网友评论:印度归国学子:印度可以从中国学到的经验 ZT by 学姐的头 on 2014-04-08

-------------译者:观棋柯烂-审核者:chen_lt------------
kshay Kumar, 25, knew his journey would be tough. But he thought he was prepared.
Kshay Kumar, 25岁,他知道自己的旅途会很艰难,但他认为他已经做好了准备。
In 2012, after an engineering degree and a oneyear stint with a multinational, Kumar felt he needed a makeover. "I didn't want to be stuck with civil engineering all my life. I also wanted to see the world and explore new options," he recalls. Doing an MBA from a premier institute was on his mind.
2012年,在取得工程学位并为跨国公司服务了一年后,Kumar觉得他需要一个转变。“我不想被土木工程套牢一生。我也想看看这个世界,探索一下新的机会,”他回忆道。在一个高等学院读MBA的想法浮现在他的脑海里。
He did think of the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and the Xavier School of Management, but the desire for global exposure pushed him to explore options overseas. Kumar settled for a oneyear post-graduate course at the Imperial University in the UK, which he financed via an education loan. "Visa rules and the bleak job market there did weigh on my mind. But I had a feeling I could manage it," he says. He had confidence in Imperial's good global ranking, its alumni network and his own hard work.
他也考虑过印度管理学院(IIM)和泽维尔管理学院,但是对于全球视野的渴望促使他探索海外的机会。Kumar接受了位于英国的帝国大学的一年期研究生课程,其资金来源为助学贷款。“英国的签证规则和惨淡的就业市场确实在我脑海中权衡过,但我有一种感觉,我一定能够应付得过来,”他说。因为帝国大学在全球的优秀排名、其校友关系网以及他自己的努力,他充满信心。
Kumar began his hunt for a job virtually from the day he landed in the UK. He studied hard to get good grades but worked even harder to find a good job. By tapping into networks of his alumni, friends and family, Kumar reckons he would have reached out to over 200 firms during that year. "It didn't work. My good grades made me eligible for plenty of jobs, but my non-European Indian passport was the problem," he shrugs.
Kumar一来英国就开始寻找工作。他努力学习以取得好成绩,但更努力去寻找一份好工作。通过发掘他的校友、朋友和家庭的关系,Kumar估计在那年他接触了超过200家企业。“这没有用。我的好成绩让我满足了许多岗位的条件,但我非欧洲的印度护照是个问题,”他耸了耸肩。
Kumar moved back to India late last year and has just landed a job with a private equity firm. "All my plans have been delayed by five years," he says. Close to half his salary today goes in paying monthly instalments on his education loan.
Kumar去年底回到了印度,在一家私人股权公司工作。“我的所有计划都被推迟了五年,”他说。他每月要用现在将近一半的薪水来偿还助学贷款。
-------------译者:图特腾-审核者:chen_lt------------

The World isn't Flat
世界不是平的
The West has a problem. Its economy is in a funk, not enough jobs are being created, cautious companies aren't hiring too many, and worried governments — from the US to the UK — are raising visa barriers for foreigners to work in their countries.
西方已经出现问题。它的经济陷入一片混乱,不能创造足够多的职位,谨慎的公司不会聘用过多的职员,焦虑不安的各国政府——从美国到英国——正在增加签证壁垒以阻止外国人在他们的国家工作。
Young Indians, who went overseas for education, are facing a tough time finding a job. Many like Kumar have returned home. And some are now casting the net wider — looking for jobs from the US to Hong Kong and Singapore — or settling for sub-optimal options. Rupa Chanda, professor, IIM-Bangalore, who has worked on reports on international student mobility, says visa and immigration is the biggest factor affecting Indian students' decisions.
海外求学的年轻印度人正在面临找工作的艰难时期。像Kumar一样,许多人已经回家。他们中一些人正在通过更大范围的求职网——从英国到香港、新加坡来寻找工作;或者妥协于较次的选择。印度管理学院(IIM)班加罗尔分校的Rupa Chanda教授曾在研究国际学生流动性的报告中指出,签证和移民政策是影响印度学生做出决定的最大因素。
The US, the UK and Australia — the three most popular destinations for Indians seeking global education — have seen the number of Indian students come down over the past few years (see Out of Favour?). Remember, many Indian students take hefty education loans to finance their studies abroad. While many would find decent jobs back in India that would not help much as these students need dollar salaries to comfortably service their loan. This is taking its toll. "Overseas education is costly. Many Indian students are doing a cost-benefit analysis to figure how to recoup their investments overseas and putting off their plans ," explains New York-based Rahul Choudaha, chief knowledge officer, World Education Services (WES), a non-profit organization that provides credential evaluations for international students planning to study or work in the US and Canada.
美国、英国、澳大利亚,印度人寻求全球教育的最火的三大目的地,已经发现印度学生数量在过去几年持续下降(或者三大目的地已经不受青睐?)。记住,许多印度学生都背负着高额的教育贷款来资助他们的海外求学。虽然回到印度他们都能找到体面的工作,但是这些都没有太大的帮助,因为学生们需要一份用美元支付的薪水来帮助他们更轻松的偿还贷款。这就是造成的影响。“海外教育非常昂贵,许多印度学生都正在进行成本效益分析,以找出如何收回其海外投资,推迟他们(去海外就读)的计划,” 坐落于纽约的世界教育服务中心的知识总监Rahul Choudaha解释道。 这一非营利性组织为准备在美国和加拿大学习或工作的国际学生提供认证评估。
But to be fully able to understand how this trend will play out, one must understand the backdrop. A big generational shift is taking place among the students looking for overseas education. Many of them now are India's liberalization children, who have grown up post-1991 and lived in an increasingly global world with fewer barriers.
但是要完全理解这种趋势是如何产生的,就必须要了解其背景。一个大的世代转变正发生在寻求海外教育的学生中间。如今的他们许多都是印度自由的一代,成长在1991年后,生活在障碍更少的全球化的今天。
So in many ways this is their first brush with a world with barriers. Many are also children of globetrotting well-paid senior corporate executives who think differently about education, exposure and investing in a world-class education. "These parents understand the long-term rewards of a world-class education. I see many of my friends taking their children to these top campuses after they pass out from school to give them a first-hand feel," says Hema Ravichandar, strategic HR expert and a former HR head of Infosys.
所以从许多方面来说,这是他们第一次面对来自世界的阻碍。他们中也有许多是环游世界的、对教育、经历以及投资世界级教育有着不同看法的高薪企业的高管们的小孩。 “这些父母明白世界一流教育的长期回报。我看到我的许多朋友带着他们的小孩去顶尖的校园,让小孩们领略这些高等学府给他们的切身感受,”战略人力资源管理专家、Infosys 公司前人力资源主管 Hema Ravichandar说道。
-------------译者:dragonilove-审核者:chen_lt-----------

Woes on Foreign Shores
身处海外的痛苦
Both of Ravichandar's children have studied overseas. Her daughter, Aditi, is doing her MBA from Wharton in the US and her son Nikhil, 22, completed his Bachelor's in economics from Warwick in the UK. Nikhil chose the UK over India because of the flexibility available in picking courses — he wanted to do economics with law which was impossible in India with its rigid course structures. "Education in India is not very research-driven and multicultural," he adds.
Ravichandar'的两个孩子都已经在国外留学。她的女儿,Aditi正在美国的沃顿商学院读MBA而她22岁的儿子Nikhil已经在英国的华威大学完成了经济本科学习。Nikhil之所以选择英国而非印度是因为英国大学在课程选择上有更大的灵活性——他既想要修经济学又想要修法律,而这在具有严格课程结构的印度大学是不可能的。他还说,“在印度的教育并不是由研究来驱使的,也不够文化多元性”。
But during his stay there, the UK revoked the two-year work permit for foreign graduates. Thus he needed a firm job offer to stay on after graduation. This was difficult since he was particular about the kind of work. "I wanted a job in economic consulting," he says. Unable to get that he preferred to do a postgraduate programme instead. While he did not take any loan, for many of his classmates, who had taken a hefty education loan, things were difficult.
但是就当他在英国学习时,英国取消了留学生毕业后的两年工作签证,因此Nikhil需要一份工作从而能够在毕业后留在英国。由于他对工作的特殊要求这显得有些困难“我想要一份有关经济咨询的工作”Nikhil说。若不能获得这样的工作,Nikhil宁愿继续读研究生。由于Nikhil没有像他的同学那样申请沉重的助学贷款,事情开始变得困难了。
Now, Nikhil is back in India getting some interesting exposure at a few start-ups in Bangalore, India's Silicon Valley. He is contemplating a startup of his own. "This is the best time to take the risk and explore it," he says.
现在 Nikhil 已经回到了印度并且在印度的硅谷,班加罗尔与一些新兴企业进行了接触。他正在考虑自己创办一个公司。“这是最好的冒险和探索的时候”他说。
Across the Atlantic, Sujoyini Mandal, in her 20s, offers another peek into the odds that Indian students face overseas. After her graduation from Jadavpur University, Mandal went to Singapore for her postgrad and worked with a think-tank there. Life was good but since she had always yearned for a degree from a world-class university, she applied for a Master's at Harvard's Kennedy School.
穿越过大西洋,20岁的Sujoyini Mandal展现了印度学生在海外遭遇的另一面。在她从贾达普大学毕业之后,Mandal去新加坡念了研究生并且在一个智囊团工作。生活过得很惬意,但是由于她希望获得世界一流大学的学位,她申请了哈佛肯尼迪政治学院。
For two years, she deferred her admission as she did not get any financial aid. She saved some money and, with a bit of aid, finally took the plunge in 2011. Foreign students in her college face an education loan cap of $30,000 ($15,000 a year), she says, making things even more difficult Mandal started looking for a job when she graduated in May 2013. But mandates that fitted her needs and aspirations were not easy to come by. She did land a contract with the World Bank but that was short term, uncertain and had no medical cover. Last month Mandal finally landed a job with an investment bank.
两年来,由于Mandal没有获得任何经济援助,她一直在延迟入学时间。在存了一些钱并且一些援助之后她最终在2011年入学了。Mandal说,她所在学院的留学生面临30000美元(15000美元每年)的贷款限额,这使得情况变得更加困难。Mandal在2013年5月毕业后开始寻找工作。但是适合她的需求和期望的职位并不那么容易获得。她确实已经和世界银行签订了合约,但是那是短期的,有不确定性,也没有医疗保险。最终在上个月Mandal在一家投资银行找到了一份工作。
Despite such struggles, there are many reasons why the pursuit of overseas education among young Indians is unlikely to die down any time soon.
尽管面临这么多挣扎,但仍然有很多其他原因让印度学生想去海外留学,短期内这种趋势是不会消失的。
-------------译者:长太息兮-审核者:chen_lt------------

The Demographic Bulge
人口膨胀
Every year, around 800,000 Indian students reportedly go overseas for their education. This costs the country close to $15 billion of forex annually, estimates industry lobby Assocham. If students are going overseas for education, it's because India has a problem of both capacity and quality. The country has one of the world's largest education infrastructures: 600 universities and 34,000 colleges with 17 million students enrolled and 5 million students graduating every year. But India is also witnessing a demographic bulge — it has perhaps the world's largest young population. Experts estimate that some 100-million-odd students will seek higher education over the next decade.
据报道,每年大约有800000名印度学生出国留学,,据印度工商业联合会估计这将耗费每年近150亿美元的外汇。学生们出国留学是因为印度不管是在教育容量还是教育质量上都有问题。印度的教育基础设施是世界上最大的教育设施之一,600所大学和34,000学院每年接受1700多万新生并输出500多万毕业生,但是我们也正见证着印度人口的爆炸性增长,印度或许有着世界上最庞大的年轻人群,专家估计在未来十年里,将有一亿多的学生寻求更高的教育。The capacity problem is compounded by the quality issue. About 70% of the capacity in India is of poor standards. At the other end of the spectrum, competitive intensity at the premier colleges is so stiff that it is often easier for bright students to get admission in Ivy League colleges in the US and the UK than in the IITs, IIMs and even top colleges in Delhi University.
教育能力和教育质量上的问题是相互关联的。大约70%的印度教育处较低的水准,而另一方面,印度一流学院的竞争激烈且死板,以至于对聪明的学生来说,进入美国或英国的常春藤大学要比进入印度理工学院、印度管理学院、甚至德里大学里好的学院都容易得多。
All this coincides with the rise of India's aspirational upper middle class. Over the past two decades, many first-generation Indians have risen up the corporate hierarchy and are financially well-off. These welltravelled, financially stable corporate executives desire the best for their children. "They are looking for the best educational experience. They know it is a life-long asset. Indian premier colleges do not have the capacity and are very rigid," says TV Mohandas Pai, chairman, Manipal Global Education. Pai's son studied at Stanford University in the US and now works for a start-up in Silicon Valley.
这些现象与印度上层中产阶级不断上涨的雄心壮志密切相关。在过去的二十几年里,许多第一代移民创立了自己的事业,相当富裕。这些经济稳定,见多识广的公司高管希望把最好的东西给予他们的子女。Manipal全球教育主席 Mohandas Pai说他们在为孩子寻找一流的教育,这是孩子一生的财富,印度的一流大学不能给予这些而且这些大学要求过于死板。他的孩子曾在美国斯坦福大学学习,现在在硅谷工作。
This aligns well with the global trend of rising international mobility of students. According to Institute of International Education (IIE), since 2000, the number of students leaving home in pursuit of higher education has increased by 65%, totalling about 4.3 million students globally. What is more interesting is that the share of students from the developing countries in this pie is rising — it moved up from 54.8% to 69% between 1999 and 2009.
这个现象与世界范围内学生国际间流动增强的趋势是一致的。IIE的研究表明,自2000年以来,学生为了获得更高的教育出国的数量增加了65%。全球总计约430万。更有趣的现象是发展中国家的学生所占的份额正在增加---1999年到2009年间从54.8%增加到69%.
-------------译者:*河蟹*员-审核者:chen_lt------------

India vs China
印度对比中国
Not surprisingly, the world's two most populous and powerful emerging countries — China and India — send the largest number of students overseas. But China has rapidly shifted gears to overtake India.
让人毫不惊讶的是,作为世界上人口最多、经济发展最快速的这两个国家向海外派遣了最多数量的留学生。但这方面中国很快就超越了印度。
Consider what's taking place in the US. In 2000-01, India topped the list of international students by country, with 66,836 against China's 63,211. But by 2009-10 China had overtaken India. In 2012-13, China sent 236,000 students; India was nudging the 97,000 mark. While the number of Chinese students has been growing in double digits of late, that of Indian students has been sliding. To understand why that is happening, it is important to analyze the profile of students going overseas from both the countries. 2000-2001年,美国的外国留学生中印度学生是最多的,66836人,而中国学生为63211人。但是在2009-2010年时,中国超越了印度。2012-2013年,中国向美国派遣的留学生
已经达到236000人;而印度才逼近97000人。近来,中国留学生人数呈两位数增长,而印度方面则一直在下降。要想了解这其中的缘由,就有必要分析一下两个国家的留学生的一些基本情况。
Chinese students going to the US are evenly split between undergraduate (40%) and postgraduate programmes (44%). But Indian students are heavily skewed towards postgraduate programmes (55%) with just 13% at the undergraduate level. Indian students are also unique as over 60% are in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, maths) category. Bear in mind that historically, postgraduate and STEM programmes offer more financial support than undergraduate and non-STEM programmes.
中国留学生去主要去美国接受本科教育项目(40%)和研究生教育项目(44%),比较均衡。而印度学生去美国主要接受研究生教育(55%),本科教育只占13%。60%的印度留学生学的是理工科。从历史上来说,研究生以及理工科教育项目比起本科教育项目和非理工科教育项目在资金上会给留学生提供更多的帮助。
"The decline in Indian students is directly related to the 'Strivers' , who have been putting their plans on hold due to increasing cost of studying abroad which in turn was triggered by economic uncertainty and currency devaluation," says Choudaha.
“印度留学生的下降与”奋勉族“群体相关(根据全球教育服务处的研究,指的是资源少的发奋者),这个群体由于海外留学费用的增加导致他们搁置了自己的留学计划,而经济不稳定以及货币贬值引发了海外留学成本的提高,”Choudaha说。
A majority of Indian students arrives at the Master's level and funds education by taking loans as financial aid from colleges has dried up. So, while the majority of Indian students go for education loans, Chinese students are supported by their families. According to a research by WES, 47% of Indian respondents report loans as one of the primary sources of funding as compared with only 3% of Chinese.
大部分的印度海外留学生取得了硕士文凭,但由于学校助学金的萎缩,他们不得不通过贷款来完成学业。所以大部分印度学生是通过贷款来完成学业的,而中国留学生则靠父母支持。根据全球教育服务处的一项研究,47%的印度回馈者说贷款是他们完成学业的主要手段之一,而这么说的中国学生只占3%。
Chinese students, in contrast, are "explorers" (experience seekers), says Choudaha. Often the only-child of financially well-off parents, they have the financial wherewithal to study abroad and are under less pressure to find a job there. But change may be afoot. Some Indian students could make the transition from 'strivers' to 'explorers' and Choudaha expects more and more Indian students — most of them children of well-off senior executives — to go overseas at the undergraduate level. Not so dependent on financial aid, he also sees many more Indians exploring new interdisciplinary fields, beyond STEM. Even in the STEM category, experts feel that Indian students will be the biggest beneficiary as the Obama government eases rules for this critical segment in future.
对比来说,中国学生是“探险族”(追求体验一族),Choudaha如是说。通常是富裕家庭的独生子女,所以留学的钱不用愁,也没有太大的压力去找工作。但情况可能会有所改变,一些印度学生有可能从“奋勉族”向“探险族”转变,Choudaha预测说将有越来越多大多来自印度富裕家庭的学生到海外接受本科教育。他们不会太依靠助学金。他还说越来越多印度学生除了理工科外还涉及了新的跨学科教育领域。即使是在理工科类别中,专家们认为随着奥巴马在未来放宽这个类别的规定,印度学生将成为最大的受益者。
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Lessons from China
中国榜样
Two decades back, China faced problems similar to those India faces today — its higher education had both capacity and quality issues. Since then China has worked hard to upgrade its educational institutions. It has two programmes — Project 211 and Project 985. The former aims to make 100 Chinese universities world class in the 21st century; this will help China churn out world-class trained professionals to push economic growth. These universities are expected to set national standards for education quality that can be replicated by others.
二十年前,中国面对的问题如同今日印度面对的问题——高等教育在质和量上的不足。从那时起中国努力升级发展他们的教育机构,其中包涵了211工程和985工程。前者旨在创造21世纪的世界级名牌大学,这会快速培养出大批的专业人才,有效推动其经济发展。这些大学被期望于发展可供借鉴的全国性教育质量标准。
Project 985 started more than a decade back and is an attempt to build China's own Ivy League colleges in the 21st century. In the first phase the project included nine universities. The second phase, launched in 2004, includes 40-odd universities. The projects have been backed by significant investments. According to a New York Times report, China is investing $250 billion a year in human capital.
985工程开始于十多年前,意在创造21世纪中国自己的常春藤校盟。工程第一阶段包括了九所大学。第二阶段在2004年启动,新增四十所大学。这项工程受到了大量投资支持。据纽约时报报道,中国为人力资源发展一年就投资了2500亿美元。
The dragon country's efforts are now bearing fruit. Many Chinese universities are climbing up the global ranks. Two Chinese universities have made it to the top global 50 in the Times Higher Education report. India has none. In the top 500, 16 Chinese universities make the cut against seven from India. Mobile international students are taking note. A decade back, China was hardly on anybody's radar.
龙之国度的努力现在已经开花结果,很多中国大学都跻身入全球排行榜。泰晤士报高等教育刊报说两所中国大学成功挤入全球最佳大学前五十名。印度一个名额都没。在全球前五百名大学中中国有16所,完胜印度的七所。国际学生们都注意到了中国的巨大变化,而十年前,中国大学几乎不被关注。
Today, it is the third largest education hub in the world after the US and the UK with 3.28 lakh international students, according to IIE. By 2020, it hopes to host 500,000 international students. Even Singapore is targeting 1.5 lakh foreign students by 2015. In contrast, India was home to just 27,000 international students in 2012. China is aware that to push innovation and realize its economic ambitions, it must be able to attract top talent — in its colleges and workforce.
据国际教育学会数据,现在中国拥有32万八千的外国学生,是仅次于美国和英国的世界第三大教育中心。到2020年,这一数字可能变为50万。即使小国新加坡也有在2015年达到15万外国留学生的目标,而印度在2012年却只有2万七千外国留学生。中国已经意识到,若要推动创新和实现他的经济腾飞,就必须吸引来高端人才——在大学和职场上。
Also, in virtually every key statistic, the world today is seeing a shift from the West to the East. From economic GDP to consumption power, MNCs across the board are looking at Asia and the world's two most populous nations. This shift is happening demographically too. But in the education space, the West still dominates.
从每一个关键数据都能看出,实际上世界中心正从西方转移到东方。亚洲国家,特别是世界两大人口大国国民生产总值和消费能力的提升吸引了所有跨国公司的目光。这种转变和人口有关,但是在教育方面依然是西方占主导地位。
Of the world's top 100 universities, 46 are in the US. Seven of top 10 universities are in the US. Asia has just 11 in the top 100. "It is difficult to replicate what US has done with its universities to 2emerge as an innovation hub," says Pai. So, ambitious and aspirational Indians will continue to look overseas for education. But if India has to realize its potential, it must invest heavily in building world-class institutions in the country — the China way.
世界前100名大学有46所位于美国,前十名有七所是美国的。亚洲在全球大学前一百名中只有11所。“美国通过大学而转变为创新中心的成功是很难被复制的,”派说。因此,有理想有抱负的印度人会继续寻求海外教育机会。如果印度想发掘自身潜力,他必须学中国那样,大力投资于建设世界一流的国内大学。


); background-color: rgb(243, 241, 242); color: rgb(255, 255, 255); background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat; ">评论翻译:
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Skhey Mobile (Gurgaon) 22 Hours ago Foreign degree is no more a guarantee card for success.
外国文凭已经不再是成功的保证了
Neil M (pune-mumbai) 22 Hours ago Finding a good university and a good course is important. I know many guys select short courses which are not recognized world wide and specially in India find it difficult to get a job. Also, dream america is not true for everyone. All the best to seekers.
找一个好的大学和好的专业是十分重要的,据我了解一些人选择了一些短期的课程,这些课程并不在世界范围内被承认尤其在印度会发现很难找到一份工作。并不是每个人的美国梦都能实现。祝追梦者好运
Rajesh Thambala (Hyderabad, India) 23 Hours ago Very informative article.
十分有意义的文章
Partha (Bangalore) 1 Day ago Nice Article. Much Appreciated
很好的文章,表示赞赏
SAMAD (India) 1 Day ago right choice....
正确的选择
Tempcool Mukhopadhyay (India) 1 Day ago An excellent article. Appropriate and very well timed. Issue lies with inadequate job creation in India compared to passing out rate and all sorts of reservation quota for the "privileged" groups. Also unscrupulous marketing by planting misleading information by the education institutes of developed countries and their Indian agents.
一篇很棒的文章。写的正是时候。问题在于在印度创造的就业不足,而毕业生却不断增加,而且“特权”团体得到各种各样的预订配额。另一方面,发达国家的教育机构和其印度代理通过误导性的信息来是肆无忌惮的推销自己的教育产品。
Guramandeep Singh (Mexico) 1 Day ago 67 years after Independence, we are still stuck to providing reservation quotas in institutes of higher education. The recent Supreme Court order puts 27% reservation for OBCs which along with that of SCs and STs brings the total reservation to 49.5%. Here is the breakup of IIM-A seats: General 182 Non creamy OBC 104 ---- Schedule caste 58 ---- Schedule tribe 29 ---- Differently-abled 12 ---- Total 385 --- I have read various comments touching upon patriotism towards India to youngsters being crazy and the need to enlighten them. Reservation for a certain group is discrimination against the other groups. So ask yourself, is our system really fair? Should we not be looking at this objectively and trying to solve the root cause of the problem instead of commenting upon the phenomenon which is a result of a messed up education system at the behest of corrupt politicians?
已经独立67年了,我们的高等教育学院仍在坚持预定配额制度。最近,最高法院颁发命令27%的份额给“其他落后阶级”(OBC),同时给予“设籍种姓”(SC)和“设籍部落”(ST)一定的配额,所以总共就达到了49.5%的配额。对某一群体的配额预留其实是对其他群体的歧视。因此,扪心自问,我们的教育系统真的公平吗?相比于仅仅讨论因为腐败政客的命令导致的混乱教育系统的各种表象,难道我们不应该客观的看待并从根本上解决这些问题吗? (译著:印度的预留机制指的是将政府机构中一定数量的空缺席位留给那些落后和代表人数不足的团体(主要通过种姓和部落来定义)的成员。相当于以配额为基础的平权运动。“其他落后阶级”、“设籍种姓”以及“设籍部落”是这项机制的主要受益者。
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ILA (Chennai) replies to Guramandeep Singh 1 Day ago Dear Learned Singh. This article has nothing to do with reservation. Reservation is about affirmative action (in US parlance). Trying to give some sort of equal opportunity to people (98%) who were subjugated, denied education, and exploited by so called Forward Castes in India who constitute only 2% of the total population for millenium. This reservation is in vogue for only 60 years how can this equation be achieved in such a short span of time. Now the Forward Castes are slowly waking up and cramming for their share in the available piece of cake. If heat is felt for this itself then what should the subjugated feel for having been so for a millenium in the name of MANU SMRITIs laws? People who believe so are as you had rightly (?) pointed out are HYPROCRITS and prisoners of their own conscience.
亲爱的Learned Singh,这篇文章没有提到预留制度,预留制度是一种平权运动(用美国的说法)。它可以给被占2%总人口的高等种姓剥削了上千年,没有机会接受教育,占人口98%的低种姓人一定程度的公平机会,预留制度刚才实施了60年,在这么短的时间内绝对公平是很难实现的。现在高种姓的人正慢慢觉醒,开始狼吞虎咽的享用他们的份额。如果有些人对这种制度反应都如此激烈,那么在《摩奴法典》教义下过了上千年的被征服者又应该做何感想?反对这种平权运动的人都是伪君子和不道德的人。
RM (MN) replies to ILA 9 Hours ago Excuses, excuses. Sixty years after Independence you're still making excuses for a quota system that has made Indian education into a pile of rubbish.
呵呵,独立已经60年了,你还在为把印度的教育弄得一团糟的预留制度找借口
Athena (London) 1 Day ago It is Imperial College and not Imperial University. Perhaps ET must invest in better human capital!
那是帝国理工学院而不是帝国大学,或许《经济时报》应该加大人力资源投入了。
(Hyderabad) 1 Day ago Same thing happened with me as well like akshay kumar. I thought i am reading my story.
我和阿克夏·库马的经历很相似,我还以为在读我自己的故事呢
Nihar (Mumbai) 1 Day ago It completely depends on which institution a person is studying in abroad. It is not so that somebody got a degree in a well recognized institution in foreign and unable to get a job in India. So I request "The Economic Times" to provide a proper interpretation to the reader.
这完全取决于个人在国外的哪个机构学习。一个人得到国外著名机构的学位,却不能在印度找到工作 ,这是不可能的。所以我要求经济时报对给读者一个合理的解释。
kshi S (Bhopal) 1 Day ago coming to US was the worst decision of my life
来美国是我一生最错误的决定
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B Venky Venky (Bangalore) 1 Day ago Very informative article. To have world class universities in India, the government should get out of the way. The quota raj in higher education has to stop. More and more private funds has to be garnered towards higher education by giving tax sops. But all this remains in the realm of fiction at the moment.
非常有教育意义的文章。印度如果想要建设世界一流的大学,政府就不能介入。高等教育的配额制度必须终止。通过给予税收方面的优惠,吸引更多的私人基金投入到高等教育中来。不过到现在为止,这还还都是痴人说梦。
ketan m (mumbai) 1 Day ago study there, work here. sounds great!
出国留学,回国工作,看上去不错!
thomas (india) 1 Day ago Yes, every Indian should go overseas for education - build up net work..learn how other s think..their style-quality etc. come back and start self employed business ... it will flourish. take example from china who are into A to Z of business and industries ,they make impossible happen...of course duly and completely supported by their govt..
我同意,每个印度人都应该去国外接受教育,这样可以建立人际关系,了解别人的思维模式,健康的生活习惯等,然后再回国创业,这样国家才能繁荣。就像中国一样,在各行各业里他们都创造了不可能的奇迹,当然,也离不开政府部门适时的大力支持。
Saswata mandal (kolkata) 1 Day ago still every good student wants to go abroad.. why is it like that??
为什么所有的好学生仍然都想着出国?
Nanda Kumar (Chennai, Tamil Nadu) replies to Saswata mandal 1 Day ago ET pointed it out already..Global Exposure! and Farther mountains always seem smoother :)
金融时报已经指出来了。。。他们希望能在国际上露脸!因为外国的月亮比较圆 :)
Anupam (Bangalore) replies to Saswata mandal 1 Day ago Quick money
想赚快钱呗
Mumbaikar (Mumbai) 1 Day ago It's not entirely the kids fault - some ambitious parents push out the kids too - 'we don't think there is a future here', they say. Now, some are stuck abroad and need to return home, as countries are on an economic downturn and/or are looking more inward now, . Complicated situation - but opportunities are here too, if you want to grab them. Not everything here is as bad as you may think.
不完全是孩子们的错,一部分雄心勃勃的家长们把他们的孩子推到了火山口。家长们总会说:”我们在这看不到未来。”现在,由于外国经济的不景气以及现在他们更看重本土的学生,留学生在国外没出路,所以只能回国。情况很复杂,但是如果你想要,国内同样有机会。国内情况并非你想象的那么糟糕。
Bharath Selvan Sukumaran (Chennai) 1 Day ago Good news for India. Let their knowledge be used for Indians in India
对印度来说是个好消息。他们学成之后可以回来造福印度人民。
jgsemig (Delhi110007) 2 Days ago what about large numbers of foreign students studying in India? How could IIM-B professor be so insensitive? In a global world does this mean that Indian educational Institutions have already thrown in their towels? Does it also mean that Universities like SAARC and others have no futures?
也有很多外国学生在印度留学啊。 为什么印度管理学院班加罗尔分校(Indian Institutes of Management) 的教授们这么愚钝。从全球范围来看,是不是这就意味着印度的教育机构已经宣布投降了?类似南亚区域合作联盟(South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation)这类的学校就没有前途了吗?
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Sriram B (Bharat) 2 Days ago Learn Globally and be back to improve India. Just as they say wait till the last ball is bowled in a cricket frenzy country; do not lose hope till you have tried your hands on what you want to transform the country into.
出国深造回来为祖国效力,在这个痴迷于板球运动的国家里,就像人们所说的不到最后一球都不能言败;在尝试做一些让我们的国家变得更好地事情之前,也不要放弃希望。
Ajay Kumar (NYC) 2 Days ago Only the people who have earned admissions into Indian Universities based on reservations, face problems studying abroad, as they are looking for concessions always. People who have earned admissions throughout based on their capability and knowledge, do not face any problem. Such students do not come back.
只有那些依靠配额进入印度大学的人在出国留学学习时会面临问题,因为他们一直在寻求被特殊对待。而依靠自己能力和知识进入大学的人不会面临这些问题。这些学生也不会回国的
Ayush Jha (NOIDA) 2 Days ago Study in the US(OUT OF INTEREST in the field and/or spectrum, NOT parental pressure/peer pressure) , Work to repay the loans & then do your own startup in India. All the best :)
在美国学习(自己兴趣使然,而不是受到父母或者同龄人的压力),工作付清借款,然后在印度开始自己的事业,祝好运 :)
Mukesh Mishra (Haridwar) 2 Days ago It didn't work. My good grades made me eligible for plenty of jobs, but my non-European Indian passport was the problem," he shrugs.
他耸耸肩说:“没用的,我的成绩足够好让我可以得到很多工作,但是我的非欧洲的印度护照才是问题的关键。”
Ashwani Kaushal (New Delhi) 2 Days ago righly said, getting an addmission in DU colleages are like dreaming in day time.... it is always good to go abroad and get certification and return back... but once the indian student get a better envoironment and facility abroad why they come back to corrupt indian culture, only few with family business background will come to share the same plateform with their parental company ....shamful for Indian corruption
说得对,要想进入德里大学无异于白日做梦。出国留学获得学位然后回印度总归是好的,但是,既然印度学生在国外有更好的环境和设施,他们怎么会回到腐败的印度呢,只有很少一部分有家族企业背景的人回国继承父母的产业,对印度的腐败感到羞愧。
Parthipan K (Chennai) 2 Days ago I agree with the fact that Indian Universities are not flexible. But intelligent students can acquire knowledge of any subjects of their own. So they should not blame Indian Universities. More over, not all institutes in abroad are of high standards. Even in Ivy schools, the standards are coming down like our IITs. My opinion is that if one works hard in Indian top universities, they can acquire global standards. Also all the premier institutes in US are putting their course material in the web and hence, by going thru them one can acquire high knowledge.
我同意印度的大学不够灵活。但是聪明的学生可以靠自己得到任何学科的知识。所以他们不应该抱怨印度的大学。另外,并不是所有的外国机构都有很高的水准,甚至常春藤大学也正下降到印度理工学院的水准。我想说的是,如果一个人在印度一流大学里足够努力,那么他可以达到世界级的水准。另外美国一些著名大学把他们的课程放在网上,因此通过网上课程我们可以得到尖端的知识。
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PAUL, JIM AND ROY Q&A 26 JULY 2018

PAUL, JIM AND ROY Q&A 26 JULY 2018
https://preview.redd.it/8t2d8ujwzgc11.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cd13c50961d8839b7553a489743ea3c8d478306d
Dear members,
Here is a summary in Q&A format for the impromptu session Paul, Jim and Roy did in an unofficial trade.io supporters group on 26 July 2018 which should allay most if not all fears and questions.
Compliance & Documents Needed For Withdrawals:
First and foremost, we're not fortune tellers, but from our experience with other regulated companies in similar asset classes to crypto, like FX, CFD's, etc. regulation is coming and in many places already here as we've all seen.
We're choosing to get out in front of this, so that when it does happen and the companies that are being completely negligent in their compliance and regulatory duties are getting pinched, we're in a good position. With that said, though, we need to be cognizant of competition and not be too strict so that we can't compete with the cowboy exchanges in the near term.
With that said, let's tackle the KYC issue upon withdrawal first.
The process for withdrawals is very simple, and currently there is no tiered structure...meaning its the same process regardless if you want to withdrawal 1 satoshi or 1K BTC. This is in place for many reasons, as it will be easier to start onboarding clients once our fiat to crypto module is in place, and also grandfathering people into the LP.
When withdrawing you'll need to fill out Form A if you are an individual, and Form A is simply saying the info you're providing is true and accurate and you're not a US citizen. Very standard.
Then you provide an ID and Proof of Residence.
NOTHING needs to be certified and NOTHING needs to be translated to English, as we have a fully staffed multilingual compliance department. Apologies if the instructions were confusing, as we're in the process of making some tweaks to make it less confusing.
KYC/Withdrawal process is the minimum possible but still following regulatory guidelines.
Q: R documents provided confidential ?
A: 100% and securely stored.
Q : Restricted countries?
A : Only countries that are restricted are OFAC countries and the dangerous country known as the US.
Q: also i wanted to confirm, as u have already partnered with selfkey , will there be a personal wallet for each user at your end??? or a combine wallet ?? will there be any fee the e walllet service
A: Selfkey won't take place for some time, so put that to the side for now.
Q : So maybe you shall delete current FAQ in profile section? Simply because it's too scary for all.
A : We'll def beef it up to make it much clearer.
Q: Before moving, Any different form for companies withdrawing ? And kyc
A: Yes, good point, company withdrawals have a diff set of docs, that can be found within the guidelines, But still to my knowledge, company docs need not be certified or translated to English either.
Q : Any different form for companies withdrawing ?
A : Yes, good point, company withdrawals have a diff set of docs, that can be found within the guidelines
But still to my knowledge, company docs need not be certified or translated to English either.
Q : TIO price
A : For better or worse, we all keep an eye on price of TIO. The employees and staff have TIO just like the TIOnauts....so we all have the same interests here.
With that in mind, please remember there are nearly 90M TIO in circulation. The volume today (or most days for that matter) is 200K or a quarter of 1% of TIO in circulation.
So while its natural to see, say a 5% decrease in price, you can't ignore this is taking place on literally no volume and off of trade.io exchange. The price is being dictated by bulls**t exchanges like BitForex which is complete hocus pocus.
In order for TIO to get to the BNB levels we need liquidity and participants. We fully expect once we're up and running in full force on our exchange and TIO is limited to that, we'll be in good shape, in our opinion.
Please note this is not a recommendation to buy or sell TIO, but rather pointing out some factual information.
You wouldn't be able to sell 25K without cracking the price. In order for TIO to get to the BNB levels you need liquidity and participants. We fully expect once we're up and running in full force on our exchange and TIO is limited to that, we'll be in good shape.
Q : Exchange
A : It's not perfect, far from it. However, to say its not light years better than the beta which didn't even have working market orders at the time, and a fraction of features that are out now is simply inaccurate. I'll be happy to post what the demo beta looked like at launch. Obviously this isn't something to be proud of, but again, I do want to stick up for our devs just a little bit here as I know they are busting their butts.
With that said, any remaining mods are being tended to around the clock and I'm personally updating everyone every 12 hours. For example, there were issues with saving presets, data issues, etc. have been rectified. Next on the list is BCH & USDT. Once bugs are fixed, then enhancements come that we've been tracking and logging.
Dev's are tidying up any residual issues from launch, like BCH & USDT. Dev's btw, are more than 14 (as I saw that number somewhere), we now have over 30 devs around the globe. So rest assured there is not 1 dev in the basement making Pinnochio 🙂
On the to immediate do list after the tidying:
  1. Adding additional users, of course
  2. Adding the airdrop tokens
  3. Adding additional tokens & blockchains
So those 3 items are on the the "get it done" list. Also will be working on margin trading as well which is going to be a key initiative (i.e. our friends at Bitmex.)
Q : Why do we see trades on inactive assets ?
A : We have algos firing in tiny trades to create charts for now. Until there is adequate flow, this is necessary to create clean looking charts.
Q : So LP is technically already sort of functioning then?
A : Sort of, its a bit more complicated than that.
Q : When traded on only one exchange same prob. How can we say it s not being manipulated by the exchange itself
Non tionauts might think that way..
A : Manipulate usually conotates a negative, not sure why having TIO only on trade.io would lead to a negative.
Q : Won't ppl added in 2 batch miss LP start?]
Tied in to this. Some people will surely complain about the 30 day no fee incentive. Claiming (and rightly so) they did not avail themselves of it since they were restricted
A : We're def not committed to 30 days only, as you rightly said, it won't be fair, if we only open it up to say 5K people in the first 30 days.
Q : when will there be bots placing and filling order book
A : Once there is a larger number of users on the platform.
Q : Set deadlines, dates for things to get done
A : I will refrain from setting deadlines, as we haven't exactly been the greatest at meeting deadlines.
Q : Adding additional users
A : For adding additional users, its going to be a shoot first ask questions later tactic. So as we add, emails will go out, and we will alert the community. Its in everyones best interest that we allow the 20k+ on the waiting list and open it up to the masses ASAP though for 101 reasons. We're all on the same page there gang.
Q : Will you have a public list on which features are being worked on? (Not deadlines, just a list for poeple to know what to expect next)
A : I will have them in my twice daily updates (Paul).
Q : LP
A : As I have said earlier this week, we have been working closely with regulators to modify the LP which will maximize it's utility AND benefit to TIO hodlers. The current structure was based on the regulatory guidelines during our ICO and is expected to change in the very near future. (Roy)
We have been working with regulators and jurisdictions with the goal of making the LP TIO only. As alluded to before, things are going well and if they continue this is the direction of the LP.
Q : will there be a way to calculate taxes, or is it still soon to have an answer to that?
A : Taxes are the responsibility of the LP participant. there are dozens of jurisdictions which have their own unique tax laws and requirements which would be an incredible undertaking to address for all our users. We have been approached with a few technology providers who are working with accounting firms to address this very issue. should we discover a convenient solution for our clients then of course we integrate a solution that is conveinent for all our clients to calculate/estimate their tax liabilities for their respective juridictions.
Q : Can you give us estimated revenues on ICO consulting business?
A : It is important to understand the ICO Consulting pricing model and revenue structure for this. Our consulting services require a small upfront engagement fee to onboard the client. The majority of the revenue is not collected or recognized until the ICO client has completed their ICO as the pricing model is performanced based much of the time on amount of funds raised and tokens issued. which means, revenue from consulting engagement is delayed 3-4 months until the ICO has ended for that consulting client.
Q : Provided tiers remain as is, the price of TIO will most probably plateu at some point (I imagine pretty quickly). What's the plan with the tiers? Will these be dynamic at some point?
A : Tiers will change as price of TIO changes, also with regards to TIO price plateauing, pls keep in mind that while the LP is one major utilization of TIO, there are others to keep TIO in demand. The LP will not be the sole dictator of price/demand of TIO.
Q : With higher and higher TIO price the likelyhood is that less and less people will be interested to buy as "the train would have left the station" Imagine when TIO is $1, you'd need 2,500$ for every tier. Imagine if it reaches 10$
A : Again, the tier structure will remain "flexible" as to allow for the most participants possible while at the same type not diluting. The original plan to adjust the tier is based on the price and volume of TIO. We are contiuously monitoring this to make the LP fair and benficial to our community.
Q : In my opinion, the model of having the LP with multiple currencies (not only TIO) is a much better one, as participants will have multiple diversified assets portofolio
A : It's subjective really. I believe TIO only LP will boost the token much better. That's what we believe as well. Having someone contribute 1K BTC and getting profits from the LP doesn't help TIO at all, it only helps their pockets.
Q : when do new version of calculator appear?
A : Once the terms of service have been finalized and the official announcemnet has been made.
Q : Will the daily profits automatically be included in the next (successive) days' calculations? Or will they be deposited in a separate wallet outside the LP
A : Profit from today will be put in your wallet pro rata tomorrow, and so on.
Q: please tell what will happen to leftover (for the person having teir lvl less than 100)
A: trade.io keeps it. If the participants don't maximize their LP contribtutions that is their discretion. we are not forcing the min teir structure to be 25K as this would not be fair. We structured the LP to be fair for the masses and understand that not everyone can maximize their contribution. However, if LP participants do not max out their teir level we are a for profit company and any leftovers will help us spearhead additional initives and partnerships to increase the utility of TIO and benefit the community. There are direct and indirect benefits of the LP here.
Q: Will the LP be available before the end of September?
A: I refuse to provide a deadline...don't make me....:) We stink at hitting deadlines, its a tough biz in tech. We're busting our butts though to get the LP up and running.
Q : well, just imagined that dynamic model and it seems that in that model rich become richer and poor get poorer. Am i wrong?
A : With the flexibility for us to change the tiers we can control this better so that doesn't happen. The last thing we want is to go against our core values and placate to the whales. That's not why we created the LP. the LP was created to redistribute wealth in an easy an accessible way to the masses. What benefit does it give our community if only the rich become richer?
Q : will there be an auto-reinvest option?
A : Yes, 100%, like a money market sweep type mechanism.
Q : On window for LP withdrawal
A : You can opt out at any time, and it will be automatically removed at the next "roll over" similar to if you have traded FX with swaps.
Q : The auto-reinvest will probably hit the tier limit right (unless you're in the top tier which is currently limitless). What happens then?
A : You'll be automatically bumped to the next tier
Q : will top tier be capped on revenues shared on the start, or this will be a possibility for the future?
A : Top tier is capped in terms of % but not in terms of quantity, is that what you're asking? There has always been a cap to the %....its never been open ended. we are potentially paying out 55% of the LP, in actuality, not 50
Q : but we talked earlier that there will be an option to re-invest.. now given that the payouts will be done in other crypto.. will that option be able to convert let's say BTC into TIo and add to the LP automatically ?? if that's the case, then we''ll automatically move to the next tier.. set and forget
A : We can have a bot that auto buys TIO, we can add that later to reinvest. A later feature would be the concept of "dust" to do this reinvestment. .
Q : Will the daily profits automatically be included in the next (successive) days' calculations? Or will they be deposited in a separate wallet IP plan using dust later?
A : They would need to be reinvested to move up. initially, this would have to be a bit manual, but we are planning a DRIP plan using dust later.
Q : Non-TIO assets and caps
A : For non TIO, there needs to be caps so people dont do 2500 TIO and US$1 million. When and if we allow non-TIO in LP. AND non-TIO will not have same multipliers, but as an enhancement. We are not trying to fuck you or game you in any way. Over time, we want to enable people to make money loaning BTC, ETH, USD, etc so other can go short. Returns on that will not be like TIO. We launch with TIO only, later we present the plan for other assets. On we have something we all like, we can move ahead.
Q : LP top tier caps
A : There will be a cap on top tier as well, above where our current largest outside investors are.
Q : so Jim.. shifting gears a bit here, can you talk to us about the regulatory side of things.. where do we stand? what're the future plans with regulators? will TIO be listed as a utility token or a security? anything you can share with us in terms of regluations would be great.. I know there's a lot of confusion with the SEC right now, but any thoughts or undergoing discussions?
A : All cryptos have different classifications in different jurisdictions. We are in Switzerland, where we are a utility. US might treat us diff, as they see everything as a security. Malta has another view. This applies to ALL cryptos, not just TIO, every jurisdiction is different. To say any token is a security or utility is not accurate. Dealing with customers for exchanges is a different regulatory issue.
On the exchange regulatory side, we are working on multiple jurisdictions. HK, US, Malta, etc. In Malta, we have co setup already. Just waiting for app process to open.
Q : Is there any chance that leverage trading will be added to the exchange?
A : yes, on the priority list.
Q : Once we lock our TIOs to the LP, adn after a few months we want to remove them (loss or profit does not matter) do we get back teh same ammount of TIOs even if the price of TIO increases?
Lest say I put 25,000 TIO, with TIO price of $1, adn wehn I decide to take them off the price of TIO is 2$, do I still take 25,000 TIO back or 12,500 TIO ?
A : Yes #TIO in = #TIO out unless the LP has a massive loss that wipes out our blanace sheet and TIO reserve which stands in front of you.
Conclusion : We are going back to whipping the slaves in the salt mines.
submitted by Scarlet_TIO to u/Scarlet_TIO [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: cs7646_fall2017 top posts from 2017-08-23 to 2017-12-10 22:43 PDT

Period: 108.98 days
Submissions Comments
Total 999 10425
Rate (per day) 9.17 95.73
Unique Redditors 361 695
Combined Score 4162 17424

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 296 points, 24 submissions: tuckerbalch
    1. Project 2 Megathread (optimize_something) (33 points, 475 comments)
    2. project 3 megathread (assess_learners) (27 points, 1130 comments)
    3. For online students: Participation check #2 (23 points, 47 comments)
    4. ML / Data Scientist internship and full time job opportunities (20 points, 36 comments)
    5. Advance information on Project 3 (19 points, 22 comments)
    6. participation check #3 (19 points, 29 comments)
    7. manual_strategy project megathread (17 points, 825 comments)
    8. project 4 megathread (defeat_learners) (15 points, 209 comments)
    9. project 5 megathread (marketsim) (15 points, 484 comments)
    10. QLearning Robot project megathread (12 points, 691 comments)
  2. 278 points, 17 submissions: davebyrd
    1. A little more on Pandas indexing/slicing ([] vs ix vs iloc vs loc) and numpy shapes (37 points, 10 comments)
    2. Project 1 Megathread (assess_portfolio) (34 points, 466 comments)
    3. marketsim grades are up (25 points, 28 comments)
    4. Midterm stats (24 points, 32 comments)
    5. Welcome to CS 7646 MLT! (23 points, 132 comments)
    6. How to interact with TAs, discuss grades, performance, request exceptions... (18 points, 31 comments)
    7. assess_portfolio grades have been released (18 points, 34 comments)
    8. Midterm grades posted to T-Square (15 points, 30 comments)
    9. Removed posts (15 points, 2 comments)
    10. assess_portfolio IMPORTANT README: about sample frequency (13 points, 26 comments)
  3. 118 points, 17 submissions: yokh_cs7646
    1. Exam 2 Information (39 points, 40 comments)
    2. Reformat Assignment Pages? (14 points, 2 comments)
    3. What did the real-life Michael Burry have to say? (13 points, 2 comments)
    4. PSA: Read the Rubric carefully and ahead-of-time (8 points, 15 comments)
    5. How do I know that I'm correct and not just lucky? (7 points, 31 comments)
    6. ML Papers and News (7 points, 5 comments)
    7. What are "question pools"? (6 points, 4 comments)
    8. Explanation of "Regression" (5 points, 5 comments)
    9. GT Github taking FOREVER to push to..? (4 points, 14 comments)
    10. Dead links on the course wiki (3 points, 2 comments)
  4. 67 points, 13 submissions: harshsikka123
    1. To all those struggling, some words of courage! (20 points, 18 comments)
    2. Just got locked out of my apartment, am submitting from a stairwell (19 points, 12 comments)
    3. Thoroughly enjoying the lectures, some of the best I've seen! (13 points, 13 comments)
    4. Just for reference, how long did Assignment 1 take you all to implement? (3 points, 31 comments)
    5. Grade_Learners Taking about 7 seconds on Buffet vs 5 on Local, is this acceptable if all tests are passing? (2 points, 2 comments)
    6. Is anyone running into the Runtime Error, Invalid DISPLAY variable when trying to save the figures as pdfs to the Buffet servers? (2 points, 9 comments)
    7. Still not seeing an ML4T onboarding test on ProctorTrack (2 points, 10 comments)
    8. Any news on when Optimize_Something grades will be released? (1 point, 1 comment)
    9. Baglearner RMSE and leaf size? (1 point, 2 comments)
    10. My results are oh so slightly off, any thoughts? (1 point, 11 comments)
  5. 63 points, 10 submissions: htrajan
    1. Sample test case: missing data (22 points, 36 comments)
    2. Optimize_something test cases (13 points, 22 comments)
    3. Met Burt Malkiel today (6 points, 1 comment)
    4. Heads up: Dataframe.std != np.std (5 points, 5 comments)
    5. optimize_something: graph (5 points, 29 comments)
    6. Schedule still reflecting shortened summer timeframe? (4 points, 3 comments)
    7. Quick clarification about InsaneLearner (3 points, 8 comments)
    8. Test cases using rfr? (3 points, 5 comments)
    9. Input format of rfr (2 points, 1 comment)
    10. [Shameless recruiting post] Wealthfront is hiring! (0 points, 9 comments)
  6. 62 points, 7 submissions: swamijay
    1. defeat_learner test case (34 points, 38 comments)
    2. Project 3 test cases (15 points, 27 comments)
    3. Defeat_Learner - related questions (6 points, 9 comments)
    4. Options risk/reward (2 points, 0 comments)
    5. manual strategy - you must remain in the position for 21 trading days. (2 points, 9 comments)
    6. standardizing values (2 points, 0 comments)
    7. technical indicators - period for moving averages, or anything that looks past n days (1 point, 3 comments)
  7. 61 points, 9 submissions: gatech-raleighite
    1. Protip: Better reddit search (22 points, 9 comments)
    2. Helpful numpy array cheat sheet (16 points, 10 comments)
    3. In your experience Professor, Mr. Byrd, which strategy is "best" for trading ? (12 points, 10 comments)
    4. Industrial strength or mature versions of the assignments ? (4 points, 2 comments)
    5. What is the correct (faster) way of doing this bit of pandas code (updating multiple slice values) (2 points, 10 comments)
    6. What is the correct (pythonesque?) way to select 60% of rows ? (2 points, 11 comments)
    7. How to get adjusted close price for funds not publicly traded (TSP) ? (1 point, 2 comments)
    8. Is there a way to only test one or 2 of the learners using grade_learners.py ? (1 point, 10 comments)
    9. OMS CS Digital Career Seminar Series - Scott Leitstein recording available online? (1 point, 4 comments)
  8. 60 points, 2 submissions: reyallan
    1. [Project Questions] Unit Tests for assess_portfolio assignment (58 points, 52 comments)
    2. Financial data, technical indicators and live trading (2 points, 8 comments)
  9. 59 points, 12 submissions: dyllll
    1. Please upvote helpful posts and other advice. (26 points, 1 comment)
    2. Books to further study in trading with machine learning? (14 points, 9 comments)
    3. Is Q-Learning the best reinforcement learning method for stock trading? (4 points, 4 comments)
    4. Any way to download the lessons? (3 points, 4 comments)
    5. Can a TA please contact me? (2 points, 7 comments)
    6. Is the vectorization code from the youtube video available to us? (2 points, 2 comments)
    7. Position of webcam (2 points, 15 comments)
    8. Question about assignment one (2 points, 5 comments)
    9. Are udacity quizzes recorded? (1 point, 2 comments)
    10. Does normalization of indicators matter in a Q-Learner? (1 point, 7 comments)
  10. 56 points, 2 submissions: jan-laszlo
    1. Proper git workflow (43 points, 19 comments)
    2. Adding you SSH key for password-less access to remote hosts (13 points, 7 comments)
  11. 53 points, 1 submission: agifft3_omscs
    1. [Project Questions] Unit Tests for optimize_something assignment (53 points, 94 comments)
  12. 50 points, 16 submissions: BNielson
    1. Regression Trees (7 points, 9 comments)
    2. Two Interpretations of RFR are leading to two different possible Sharpe Ratios -- Need Instructor clarification ASAP (5 points, 3 comments)
    3. PYTHONPATH=../:. python grade_analysis.py (4 points, 7 comments)
    4. Running on Windows and PyCharm (4 points, 4 comments)
    5. Studying for the midterm: python questions (4 points, 0 comments)
    6. Assess Learners Grader (3 points, 2 comments)
    7. Manual Strategy Grade (3 points, 2 comments)
    8. Rewards in Q Learning (3 points, 3 comments)
    9. SSH/Putty on Windows (3 points, 4 comments)
    10. Slight contradiction on ProctorTrack Exam (3 points, 4 comments)
  13. 49 points, 7 submissions: j0shj0nes
    1. QLearning Robot - Finalized and Released Soon? (18 points, 4 comments)
    2. Flash Boys, HFT, frontrunning... (10 points, 3 comments)
    3. Deprecations / errata (7 points, 5 comments)
    4. Udacity lectures via GT account, versus personal account (6 points, 2 comments)
    5. Python: console-driven development (5 points, 5 comments)
    6. Buffet pandas / numpy versions (2 points, 2 comments)
    7. Quant research on earnings calls (1 point, 0 comments)
  14. 45 points, 11 submissions: Zapurza
    1. Suggestion for Strategy learner mega thread. (14 points, 1 comment)
    2. Which lectures to watch for upcoming project q learning robot? (7 points, 5 comments)
    3. In schedule file, there is no link against 'voting ensemble strategy'? Scheduled for Nov 13-20 week (6 points, 3 comments)
    4. How to add questions to the question bank? I can see there is 2% credit for that. (4 points, 5 comments)
    5. Scratch paper use (3 points, 6 comments)
    6. The big short movie link on you tube says the video is not available in your country. (3 points, 9 comments)
    7. Distance between training data date and future forecast date (2 points, 2 comments)
    8. News affecting stock market and machine learning algorithms (2 points, 4 comments)
    9. pandas import in pydev (2 points, 0 comments)
    10. Assess learner server error (1 point, 2 comments)
  15. 43 points, 23 submissions: chvbs2000
    1. Is the Strategy Learner finalized? (10 points, 3 comments)
    2. Test extra 15 test cases for marketsim (3 points, 12 comments)
    3. Confusion between the term computing "back-in time" and "going forward" (2 points, 1 comment)
    4. How to define "each transaction"? (2 points, 4 comments)
    5. How to filling the assignment into Jupyter Notebook? (2 points, 4 comments)
    6. IOError: File ../data/SPY.csv does not exist (2 points, 4 comments)
    7. Issue in Access to machines at Georgia Tech via MacOS terminal (2 points, 5 comments)
    8. Reading data from Jupyter Notebook (2 points, 3 comments)
    9. benchmark vs manual strategy vs best possible strategy (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. global name 'pd' is not defined (2 points, 4 comments)
  16. 43 points, 15 submissions: shuang379
    1. How to test my code on buffet machine? (10 points, 15 comments)
    2. Can we get the ppt for "Decision Trees"? (8 points, 2 comments)
    3. python question pool question (5 points, 6 comments)
    4. set up problems (3 points, 4 comments)
    5. Do I need another camera for scanning? (2 points, 9 comments)
    6. Is chapter 9 covered by the midterm? (2 points, 2 comments)
    7. Why grade_analysis.py could run even if I rm analysis.py? (2 points, 5 comments)
    8. python question pool No.48 (2 points, 6 comments)
    9. where could we find old versions of the rest projects? (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. where to put ml4t-libraries to install those libraries? (2 points, 1 comment)
  17. 42 points, 14 submissions: larrva
    1. is there a mistake in How-to-learn-a-decision-tree.pdf (7 points, 7 comments)
    2. maximum recursion depth problem (6 points, 10 comments)
    3. [Urgent]Unable to use proctortrack in China (4 points, 21 comments)
    4. manual_strategynumber of indicators to use (3 points, 10 comments)
    5. Assignment 2: Got 63 points. (3 points, 3 comments)
    6. Software installation workshop (3 points, 7 comments)
    7. question regarding functools32 version (3 points, 3 comments)
    8. workshop on Aug 31 (3 points, 8 comments)
    9. Mount remote server to local machine (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. any suggestion on objective function (2 points, 3 comments)
  18. 41 points, 8 submissions: Ran__Ran
    1. Any resource will be available for final exam? (19 points, 6 comments)
    2. Need clarification on size of X, Y in defeat_learners (7 points, 10 comments)
    3. Get the same date format as in example chart (4 points, 3 comments)
    4. Cannot log in GitHub Desktop using GT account? (3 points, 3 comments)
    5. Do we have notes or ppt for Time Series Data? (3 points, 5 comments)
    6. Can we know the commission & market impact for short example? (2 points, 7 comments)
    7. Course schedule export issue (2 points, 15 comments)
    8. Buying/seeking beta v.s. buying/seeking alpha (1 point, 6 comments)
  19. 38 points, 4 submissions: ProudRamblinWreck
    1. Exam 2 Study topics (21 points, 5 comments)
    2. Reddit participation as part of grade? (13 points, 32 comments)
    3. Will birds chirping in the background flag me on Proctortrack? (3 points, 5 comments)
    4. Midterm Study Guide question pools (1 point, 2 comments)
  20. 37 points, 6 submissions: gatechben
    1. Submission page for strategy learner? (14 points, 10 comments)
    2. PSA: The grading script for strategy_learner changed on the 26th (10 points, 9 comments)
    3. Where is util.py supposed to be located? (8 points, 8 comments)
    4. PSA:. The default dates in the assignment 1 template are not the same as the examples on the assignment page. (2 points, 1 comment)
    5. Schedule: Discussion of upcoming trading projects? (2 points, 3 comments)
    6. [defeat_learners] More than one column for X? (1 point, 1 comment)
  21. 37 points, 3 submissions: jgeiger
    1. Please send/announce when changes are made to the project code (23 points, 7 comments)
    2. The Big Short on Netflix for OMSCS students (week of 10/16) (11 points, 6 comments)
    3. Typo(?) for Assess_portfolio wiki page (3 points, 2 comments)
  22. 35 points, 10 submissions: ltian35
    1. selecting row using .ix (8 points, 9 comments)
    2. Will the following 2 topics be included in the final exam(online student)? (7 points, 4 comments)
    3. udacity quiz (7 points, 4 comments)
    4. pdf of lecture (3 points, 4 comments)
    5. print friendly version of the course schedule (3 points, 9 comments)
    6. about learner regression vs classificaiton (2 points, 2 comments)
    7. is there a simple way to verify the correctness of our decision tree (2 points, 4 comments)
    8. about Building an ML-based forex strategy (1 point, 2 comments)
    9. about technical analysis (1 point, 6 comments)
    10. final exam online time period (1 point, 2 comments)
  23. 33 points, 2 submissions: bhrolenok
    1. Assess learners template and grading script is now available in the public repository (24 points, 0 comments)
    2. Tutorial for software setup on Windows (9 points, 35 comments)
  24. 31 points, 4 submissions: johannes_92
    1. Deadline extension? (26 points, 40 comments)
    2. Pandas date indexing issues (2 points, 5 comments)
    3. Why do we subtract 1 from SMA calculation? (2 points, 3 comments)
    4. Unexpected number of calls to query, sum=20 (should be 20), max=20 (should be 1), min=20 (should be 1) -bash: syntax error near unexpected token `(' (1 point, 3 comments)
  25. 30 points, 5 submissions: log_base_pi
    1. The Massive Hedge Fund Betting on AI [Article] (9 points, 1 comment)
    2. Useful Python tips and tricks (8 points, 10 comments)
    3. Video of overview of remaining projects with Tucker Balch (7 points, 1 comment)
    4. Will any material from the lecture by Goldman Sachs be covered on the exam? (5 points, 1 comment)
    5. What will the 2nd half of the course be like? (1 point, 8 comments)
  26. 30 points, 4 submissions: acschwabe
    1. Assignment and Exam Calendar (ICS File) (17 points, 6 comments)
    2. Please OMG give us any options for extra credit (8 points, 12 comments)
    3. Strategy learner question (3 points, 1 comment)
    4. Proctortrack: Do we need to schedule our test time? (2 points, 10 comments)
  27. 29 points, 9 submissions: _ant0n_
    1. Next assignment? (9 points, 6 comments)
    2. Proctortrack Onboarding test? (6 points, 11 comments)
    3. Manual strategy: Allowable positions (3 points, 7 comments)
    4. Anyone watched Black Scholes documentary? (2 points, 16 comments)
    5. Buffet machines hardware (2 points, 6 comments)
    6. Defeat learners: clarification (2 points, 4 comments)
    7. Is 'optimize_something' on the way to class GitHub repo? (2 points, 6 comments)
    8. assess_portfolio(... gen_plot=True) (2 points, 8 comments)
    9. remote job != remote + international? (1 point, 15 comments)
  28. 26 points, 10 submissions: umersaalis
    1. comments.txt (7 points, 6 comments)
    2. Assignment 2: report.pdf (6 points, 30 comments)
    3. Assignment 2: report.pdf sharing & plagiarism (3 points, 12 comments)
    4. Max Recursion Limit (3 points, 10 comments)
    5. Parametric vs Non-Parametric Model (3 points, 13 comments)
    6. Bag Learner Training (1 point, 2 comments)
    7. Decision Tree Issue: (1 point, 2 comments)
    8. Error in Running DTLearner and RTLearner (1 point, 12 comments)
    9. My Results for the four learners. Please check if you guys are getting values somewhat near to these. Exact match may not be there due to randomization. (1 point, 4 comments)
    10. Can we add the assignments and solutions to our public github profile? (0 points, 7 comments)
  29. 26 points, 6 submissions: abiele
    1. Recommended Reading? (13 points, 1 comment)
    2. Number of Indicators Used by Actual Trading Systems (7 points, 6 comments)
    3. Software Install Instructions From TA's Video Not Working (2 points, 2 comments)
    4. Suggest that TA/Instructor Contact Info Should be Added to the Syllabus (2 points, 2 comments)
    5. ML4T Software Setup (1 point, 3 comments)
    6. Where can I find the grading folder? (1 point, 4 comments)
  30. 26 points, 6 submissions: tomatonight
    1. Do we have all the information needed to finish the last project Strategy learner? (15 points, 3 comments)
    2. Does anyone interested in cryptocurrency trading/investing/others? (3 points, 6 comments)
    3. length of portfolio daily return (3 points, 2 comments)
    4. Did Michael Burry, Jamie&Charlie enter the short position too early? (2 points, 4 comments)
    5. where to check participation score (2 points, 1 comment)
    6. Where to collect the midterm exam? (forgot to take it last week) (1 point, 3 comments)
  31. 26 points, 3 submissions: hilo260
    1. Is there a template for optimize_something on GitHub? (14 points, 3 comments)
    2. Marketism project? (8 points, 6 comments)
    3. "Do not change the API" (4 points, 7 comments)
  32. 26 points, 3 submissions: niufen
    1. Windows Server Setup Guide (23 points, 16 comments)
    2. Strategy Learner Adding UserID as Comment (2 points, 2 comments)
    3. Connect to server via Python Error (1 point, 6 comments)
  33. 26 points, 3 submissions: whoyoung99
    1. How much time you spend on Assess Learner? (13 points, 47 comments)
    2. Git clone repository without fork (8 points, 2 comments)
    3. Just for fun (5 points, 1 comment)
  34. 25 points, 8 submissions: SharjeelHanif
    1. When can we discuss defeat learners methods? (10 points, 1 comment)
    2. Are the buffet servers really down? (3 points, 2 comments)
    3. Are the midterm results in proctortrack gone? (3 points, 3 comments)
    4. Will these finance topics be covered on the final? (3 points, 9 comments)
    5. Anyone get set up with Proctortrack? (2 points, 10 comments)
    6. Incentives Quiz Discussion (2-01, Lesson 11.8) (2 points, 3 comments)
    7. Anyone from Houston, TX (1 point, 1 comment)
    8. How can I trace my error back to a line of code? (assess learners) (1 point, 3 comments)
  35. 25 points, 5 submissions: jlamberts3
    1. Conda vs VirtualEnv (7 points, 8 comments)
    2. Cool Portfolio Backtesting Tool (6 points, 6 comments)
    3. Warren Buffett wins $1M bet made a decade ago that the S&P 500 stock index would outperform hedge funds (6 points, 12 comments)
    4. Windows Ubuntu Subsystem Putty Alternative (4 points, 0 comments)
    5. Algorithmic Trading Of Digital Assets (2 points, 0 comments)
  36. 25 points, 4 submissions: suman_paul
    1. Grade statistics (9 points, 3 comments)
    2. Machine Learning book by Mitchell (6 points, 11 comments)
    3. Thank You (6 points, 6 comments)
    4. Assignment1 ready to be cloned? (4 points, 4 comments)
  37. 25 points, 3 submissions: Spareo
    1. Submit Assignments Function (OS X/Linux) (15 points, 6 comments)
    2. Quantsoftware Site down? (8 points, 38 comments)
    3. ML4T_2017Spring folder on Buffet server?? (2 points, 5 comments)
  38. 24 points, 14 submissions: nelsongcg
    1. Is it realistic for us to try to build our own trading bot and profit? (6 points, 21 comments)
    2. Is the risk free rate zero for any country? (3 points, 7 comments)
    3. Models and black swans - discussion (3 points, 0 comments)
    4. Normal distribution assumption for options pricing (2 points, 3 comments)
    5. Technical analysis for cryptocurrency market? (2 points, 4 comments)
    6. A counter argument to models by Nassim Taleb (1 point, 0 comments)
    7. Are we demandas to use the sample for part 1? (1 point, 1 comment)
    8. Benchmark for "trusting" your trading algorithm (1 point, 5 comments)
    9. Don't these two statements on the project description contradict each other? (1 point, 2 comments)
    10. Forgot my TA (1 point, 6 comments)
  39. 24 points, 11 submissions: nurobezede
    1. Best way to obtain survivor bias free stock data (8 points, 1 comment)
    2. Please confirm Midterm is from October 13-16 online with proctortrack. (5 points, 2 comments)
    3. Are these DTlearner Corr values good? (2 points, 6 comments)
    4. Testing gen_data.py (2 points, 3 comments)
    5. BagLearner of Baglearners says 'Object is not callable' (1 point, 8 comments)
    6. DTlearner training RMSE none zero but almost there (1 point, 2 comments)
    7. How to submit analysis using git and confirm it? (1 point, 2 comments)
    8. Passing kwargs to learners in a BagLearner (1 point, 5 comments)
    9. Sampling for bagging tree (1 point, 8 comments)
    10. code failing the 18th test with grade_learners.py (1 point, 6 comments)
  40. 24 points, 4 submissions: AeroZach
    1. questions about how to build a machine learning system that's going to work well in a real market (12 points, 6 comments)
    2. Survivor Bias Free Data (7 points, 5 comments)
    3. Genetic Algorithms for Feature selection (3 points, 5 comments)
    4. How far back can you train? (2 points, 2 comments)
  41. 23 points, 9 submissions: vsrinath6
    1. Participation check #3 - Haven't seen it yet (5 points, 5 comments)
    2. What are the tasks for this week? (5 points, 12 comments)
    3. No projects until after the mid-term? (4 points, 5 comments)
    4. Format / Syllabus for the exams (2 points, 3 comments)
    5. Has there been a Participation check #4? (2 points, 8 comments)
    6. Project 3 not visible on T-Square (2 points, 3 comments)
    7. Assess learners - do we need to check is method implemented for BagLearner? (1 point, 4 comments)
    8. Correct number of days reported in the dataframe (should be the number of trading days between the start date and end date, inclusive). (1 point, 0 comments)
    9. RuntimeError: Invalid DISPLAY variable (1 point, 2 comments)
  42. 23 points, 8 submissions: nick_algorithm
    1. Help with getting Average Daily Return Right (6 points, 7 comments)
    2. Hint for args argument in scipy minimize (5 points, 2 comments)
    3. How do you make money off of highly volatile (high SDDR) stocks? (4 points, 5 comments)
    4. Can We Use Code Obtained from Class To Make Money without Fear of Being Sued (3 points, 6 comments)
    5. Is the Std for Bollinger Bands calculated over the same timespan of the Moving Average? (2 points, 2 comments)
    6. Can't run grade_learners.py but I'm not doing anything different from the last assignment (?) (1 point, 5 comments)
    7. How to determine value at terminal node of tree? (1 point, 1 comment)
    8. Is there a way to get Reddit announcements piped to email (or have a subsequent T-Square announcement published simultaneously) (1 point, 2 comments)
  43. 23 points, 1 submission: gong6
    1. Is manual strategy ready? (23 points, 6 comments)
  44. 21 points, 6 submissions: amchang87
    1. Reason for public reddit? (6 points, 4 comments)
    2. Manual Strategy - 21 day holding Period (4 points, 12 comments)
    3. Sharpe Ratio (4 points, 6 comments)
    4. Manual Strategy - No Position? (3 points, 3 comments)
    5. ML / Manual Trader Performance (2 points, 0 comments)
    6. T-Square Submission Missing? (2 points, 3 comments)
  45. 21 points, 6 submissions: fall2017_ml4t_cs_god
    1. PSA: When typing in code, please use 'formatting help' to see how to make the code read cleaner. (8 points, 2 comments)
    2. Why do Bollinger Bands use 2 standard deviations? (5 points, 20 comments)
    3. How do I log into the gt[email protected]? (3 points, 1 comment)
    4. Is midterm 2 cumulative? (2 points, 3 comments)
    5. Where can we learn about options? (2 points, 2 comments)
    6. How do you calculate the analysis statistics for bps and manual strategy? (1 point, 1 comment)
  46. 21 points, 5 submissions: Jmitchell83
    1. Manual Strategy Grades (12 points, 9 comments)
    2. two-factor (3 points, 6 comments)
    3. Free to use volume? (2 points, 1 comment)
    4. Is MC1-Project-1 different than assess_portfolio? (2 points, 2 comments)
    5. Online Participation Checks (2 points, 4 comments)
  47. 21 points, 5 submissions: Sergei_B
    1. Do we need to worry about missing data for Asset Portfolio? (14 points, 13 comments)
    2. How do you get data from yahoo in panda? the sample old code is below: (2 points, 3 comments)
    3. How to fix import pandas as pd ImportError: No module named pandas? (2 points, 4 comments)
    4. Python Practice exam Question 48 (2 points, 2 comments)
    5. Mac: "virtualenv : command not found" (1 point, 2 comments)
  48. 21 points, 3 submissions: mharrow3
    1. First time reddit user .. (17 points, 37 comments)
    2. Course errors/types (2 points, 2 comments)
    3. Install course software on macOS using Vagrant .. (2 points, 0 comments)
  49. 20 points, 9 submissions: iceguyvn
    1. Manual strategy implementation for future projects (4 points, 15 comments)
    2. Help with correlation calculation (3 points, 15 comments)
    3. Help! maximum recursion depth exceeded (3 points, 10 comments)
    4. Help: how to index by date? (2 points, 4 comments)
    5. How to attach a 1D array to a 2D array? (2 points, 2 comments)
    6. How to set a single cell in a 2D DataFrame? (2 points, 4 comments)
    7. Next assignment after marketsim? (2 points, 4 comments)
    8. Pythonic way to detect the first row? (1 point, 6 comments)
    9. Questions regarding seed (1 point, 1 comment)
  50. 20 points, 3 submissions: JetsonDavis
    1. Push back assignment 3? (10 points, 14 comments)
    2. Final project (9 points, 3 comments)
    3. Numpy versions (1 point, 2 comments)
  51. 20 points, 2 submissions: pharmerino
    1. assess_portfolio test cases (16 points, 88 comments)
    2. ML4T Assignments (4 points, 6 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. tuckerbalch (2296 points, 1185 comments)
  2. davebyrd (1033 points, 466 comments)
  3. yokh_cs7646 (320 points, 177 comments)
  4. rgraziano3 (266 points, 147 comments)
  5. j0shj0nes (264 points, 148 comments)
  6. i__want__piazza (236 points, 127 comments)
  7. swamijay (227 points, 116 comments)
  8. _ant0n_ (205 points, 149 comments)
  9. ml4tstudent (204 points, 117 comments)
  10. gatechben (179 points, 107 comments)
  11. BNielson (176 points, 108 comments)
  12. jameschanx (176 points, 94 comments)
  13. Artmageddon (167 points, 83 comments)
  14. htrajan (162 points, 81 comments)
  15. boyko11 (154 points, 99 comments)
  16. alyssa_p_hacker (146 points, 80 comments)
  17. log_base_pi (141 points, 80 comments)
  18. Ran__Ran (139 points, 99 comments)
  19. johnsmarion (136 points, 86 comments)
  20. jgorman30_gatech (135 points, 102 comments)
  21. dyllll (125 points, 91 comments)
  22. MikeLachmayr (123 points, 95 comments)
  23. awhoof (113 points, 72 comments)
  24. SharjeelHanif (106 points, 59 comments)
  25. larrva (101 points, 69 comments)
  26. augustinius (100 points, 52 comments)
  27. oimesbcs (99 points, 67 comments)
  28. vansh21k (98 points, 62 comments)
  29. W1redgh0st (97 points, 70 comments)
  30. ybai67 (96 points, 41 comments)
  31. JuanCarlosKuriPinto (95 points, 54 comments)
  32. acschwabe (93 points, 58 comments)
  33. pharmerino (92 points, 47 comments)
  34. jgeiger (91 points, 28 comments)
  35. Zapurza (88 points, 70 comments)
  36. jyoms (87 points, 55 comments)
  37. omscs_zenan (87 points, 44 comments)
  38. nurobezede (85 points, 64 comments)
  39. BelaZhu (83 points, 50 comments)
  40. jason_gt (82 points, 36 comments)
  41. shuang379 (81 points, 64 comments)
  42. ggatech (81 points, 51 comments)
  43. nitinkodial_gatech (78 points, 59 comments)
  44. harshsikka123 (77 points, 55 comments)
  45. bkeenan7 (76 points, 49 comments)
  46. moxyll (76 points, 32 comments)
  47. nelsongcg (75 points, 53 comments)
  48. nickzelei (75 points, 41 comments)
  49. hunter2omscs (74 points, 29 comments)
  50. pointblank41 (73 points, 36 comments)
  51. zheweisun (66 points, 48 comments)
  52. bs_123 (66 points, 36 comments)
  53. storytimeuva (66 points, 36 comments)
  54. sva6 (66 points, 31 comments)
  55. bhrolenok (66 points, 27 comments)
  56. lingkaizuo (63 points, 46 comments)
  57. Marvel_this (62 points, 36 comments)
  58. agifft3_omscs (62 points, 35 comments)
  59. ssung40 (61 points, 47 comments)
  60. amchang87 (61 points, 32 comments)
  61. joshuak_gatech (61 points, 30 comments)
  62. fall2017_ml4t_cs_god (60 points, 50 comments)
  63. ccrouch8 (60 points, 45 comments)
  64. nick_algorithm (60 points, 29 comments)
  65. JetsonDavis (59 points, 35 comments)
  66. yjacket103 (58 points, 36 comments)
  67. hilo260 (58 points, 29 comments)
  68. coolwhip1234 (58 points, 15 comments)
  69. chvbs2000 (57 points, 49 comments)
  70. suman_paul (57 points, 29 comments)
  71. masterm (57 points, 23 comments)
  72. RolfKwakkelaar (55 points, 32 comments)
  73. rpb3 (55 points, 23 comments)
  74. venkatesh8 (54 points, 30 comments)
  75. omscs_avik (53 points, 37 comments)
  76. bman8810 (52 points, 31 comments)
  77. snladak (51 points, 31 comments)
  78. dfihn3 (50 points, 43 comments)
  79. mlcrypto (50 points, 32 comments)
  80. omscs-student (49 points, 26 comments)
  81. NellVega (48 points, 32 comments)
  82. booglespace (48 points, 23 comments)
  83. ccortner3 (48 points, 23 comments)
  84. caa5042 (47 points, 34 comments)
  85. gcalma3 (47 points, 25 comments)
  86. krushnatmore (44 points, 32 comments)
  87. sn_48 (43 points, 22 comments)
  88. thenewprofessional (43 points, 16 comments)
  89. urider (42 points, 33 comments)
  90. gatech-raleighite (42 points, 30 comments)
  91. chrisong2017 (41 points, 26 comments)
  92. ProudRamblinWreck (41 points, 24 comments)
  93. kramey8 (41 points, 24 comments)
  94. coderafk (40 points, 28 comments)
  95. niufen (40 points, 23 comments)
  96. tholladay3 (40 points, 23 comments)
  97. SaberCrunch (40 points, 22 comments)
  98. gnr11 (40 points, 21 comments)
  99. nadav3 (40 points, 18 comments)
  100. gt7431a (40 points, 16 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. [Project Questions] Unit Tests for assess_portfolio assignment by reyallan (58 points, 52 comments)
  2. [Project Questions] Unit Tests for optimize_something assignment by agifft3_omscs (53 points, 94 comments)
  3. Proper git workflow by jan-laszlo (43 points, 19 comments)
  4. Exam 2 Information by yokh_cs7646 (39 points, 40 comments)
  5. A little more on Pandas indexing/slicing ([] vs ix vs iloc vs loc) and numpy shapes by davebyrd (37 points, 10 comments)
  6. Project 1 Megathread (assess_portfolio) by davebyrd (34 points, 466 comments)
  7. defeat_learner test case by swamijay (34 points, 38 comments)
  8. Project 2 Megathread (optimize_something) by tuckerbalch (33 points, 475 comments)
  9. project 3 megathread (assess_learners) by tuckerbalch (27 points, 1130 comments)
  10. Deadline extension? by johannes_92 (26 points, 40 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 34 points: jgeiger's comment in QLearning Robot project megathread
  2. 31 points: coolwhip1234's comment in QLearning Robot project megathread
  3. 30 points: tuckerbalch's comment in Why Professor is usually late for class?
  4. 23 points: davebyrd's comment in Deadline extension?
  5. 20 points: jason_gt's comment in What would be a good quiz question regarding The Big Short?
  6. 19 points: yokh_cs7646's comment in For online students: Participation check #2
  7. 17 points: i__want__piazza's comment in project 3 megathread (assess_learners)
  8. 17 points: nathakhanh2's comment in Project 2 Megathread (optimize_something)
  9. 17 points: pharmerino's comment in Midterm study Megathread
  10. 17 points: tuckerbalch's comment in Midterm grades posted to T-Square
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